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BAAM 2011
Convention Schedule
(Subject to modification)


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  Posters | Thursday Workshops | Friday Workshops

BAAM 2011 online convention registration now closed.
You may still register at the door.

BACB CEUs will be available for most sessions at no extra cost!
(Sessions will be designated for CEUs as approvals are received.)

Important Note to BAAM presenters

BAAM can supply a digital LCD projector. BAAM cannot supply laptops. Please bring your own laptop and appropriate adaptors if you are going to use a digital projector. Please bring a backup copy of your presentation on a disk-key or CD. Test everything. Macintosh users, bring your projector adaptor.

Because certain projectors sometimes do not work with certain computers, it is BAAM's strong recommendation that you bring your own tested projector and computer combination.

Thursday, February 24, 2011

8:00-9:00 a.m. Registration (Open all day) Room 350

Note: Continental breakfast will be available in the Ballroom during registration. Free for convention registrants.

Keynote Speaker

Richard W. Malott

"Dream Chasers"

1.0 BACB Type-II CEU

Richard W. Malott
Western Michigan University

9:00 - 10:15 am
Ballroom A

Here’s one of my favorite things about our field of behavior analysis: it’s filled with dream chasers—delightfully delusional behavior analysts devoting their lives to chasing the behavior analytic dream, to saving the world with behavior analysis, or at least some small chunk of the world, to helping all kids on the spectrum learn to talk, to disseminating behavior-analytic, computer-based instruction throughout public education, to ending global warming, to infusing their undergrad students with a love of behavior analysis, and also to understanding what makes us complex organisms and complex social systems tick, without forgetting our Skinner-box, our experimental roots; in other words, to finding out why the pigeon pecks the key and what that has to do with you and me. You name it, and there’s a small or large group of people using behavior analysis to achieve these illusive goals, working toward the well being of humanity. I’d like to share a few of my heroes with you.

Thursday Breakout Sessions

10:30-11:20 am Room 352 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for a Child with Severe Receptive-Expressive Language Delay
. Tamara Perry (Eastern Michigan University and Beaumont Children's Hospital) & Lori Warner (Beaumont Children's Hospital)

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a well-established intervention for a variety of externalizing behavior problems in young children, such as noncompliance, aggression, and other disruptive behaviors. PCIT is a parent-training program that teaches basic behavior management principles and consists of reinforcer pairing and compliance training phases. Recently, PCIT has been demonstrated to be effective for children with autism spectrum disorders and language delays. The following presentation illustrates a case of 4-year-old African-American boy with a history of severe language delays, limited functional play, elopement, tantrums, and noncompliance. His mother and maternal grandmother participated in sessions. Sessions were conducted for 1 hour per week at an outpatient, hospital-based clinic. Modifications to the typical PCIT protocol will be also discussed. Results indicated systematic increases in child vocalizations and duration of toy engagement and decreases in overall disruptive and noncompliant behaviors, both within session and in the home setting.

10:30-11:20 am Room 320 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Classroom Accommodations for Students with Externalizing Disorders. Kim Killu & Sara Byrd (University of Michigan-Dearborn)

Students with externalizing disorders can be the most challenging and frustrating for classroom teachers.  Because of their behavioral excesses, these students not only disrupt the academic climate and routine of the classroom, but, oftentimes, they may be a danger to the teacher and other students.  These students struggle academically, behaviorally, and socially in the classroom environment, and require specialized interventions and accommodations to facilitate their academic performance and social interactions.  Legal protection, however, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 may not be available for these students, thus leaving the classroom teacher without the resources and supports to provide interventions and accommodations.  This discussion addresses the characteristics of students with externalizing disorders, the manifestation of those disorders within the classroom, effective classroom accommodations, and the role of educators in the treatment of these disorders.

10:30-11:20 pm Room 330
Use of a Structured Behavioral Interview Model to Hire Intervention Staff for Intensive Home-Based Health Management. Lisa M. Todd (Wayne State University School of Medicine) & Kathryn E. Brogan (Wayne State University School of Medicine)

When staffing grant-funded research projects, it is particularly important to hire consistent, high-quality personnel with low turnover potential. Identifying the best candidates during a brief interview is a difficult process that can result in subjective hiring decisions and poor employee fit. Conducting structured behavioral interviews (SBI) can improve hiring decisions. Empirical evidence shows that they have strong predictive validity for job performance compared to other commonly used employee selection approaches, such as traditional interviews, cognitive testing, and reference checks (Van Clieaf, 1991). One explanation may be that SBI target specific knowledge, skills, and experience using criterion-based interview content developed from a comprehensive job analysis. A model described by Van Clieaf was used to develop 90-minute SBI. Challenges faced included filling newly created positions for a project that was still in its infancy stage; however, interviews developed were adaptable for both professional and paraprofessional positions. Some hiring criteria could not be assessed adequately through face-to-face interview, such as provider-client empathic interactions and applied professional skills. Therefore, the SBI was supplemented with additional applicant evaluation methods: a case study problem and Video Assessment of Simulated Encounters-Revised (VASE-R) software. In this presentation, we will discuss the development and use of a SBI and supplementary methods used to hire staff and navigate hiring challenges. The SBI model that we used has wide applicability in a variety of employment settings.

Noon - 1:30 pm Lunch Period
(On your own--many selections on the first floor of the Student Center)

1:30-2:50 pm Room 352 1.5 BACB Type-II CEUs
The BACB Educational Plan: Are We Missing the Boat?
Chair: Jennifer D. Kowalkowski (Eastern Michigan University)

As the field of behavior analysis continues to grow, individuals desiring work in behavior analytic positions pursue educational requirements necessary to obtain national certification. This symposium includes three papers that explore the educational requirements of the BACB and the potential mismatch of training versus skills needed to accurately and effectively perform their jobs in the field.

Behavior Analysts and Unsupported Treatments: What the BACB Does Not Know. Zina A. Eluri & James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)

Research has been a hallmark of behavior analysis and has been used in the past to guide clinicians to implement the most effective treatments available. Many clients seek clinicians with specific training in behavior analysis to ensure that they are receiving the most effective research-based treatments available; therefore, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) has created a certification process for behavior analysts that require appropriate training through coursework and practice under the supervision of an individual who has been certified by the BACB as a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA). The BACB has created a system by which clinicians who hold this certification must follow strict guidelines on responsible conduct that includes, but is not limited to, a reliance on scientific knowledge, competence, and integrity. Although there are strict guidelines, some BCBA's practice treatments that have little to no scientific support for their efficacy in return for financial compensation from clients, thereby taking advantage of sensitive populations. This presentation will review the requirements of the BACB, how clinicians are monitored, and reveal some of the unsupported treatments that have been implemented by those who hold a certification from this organization.

The Miseducation of Behavior Analysts: What are Common Factors? Jennifer D. Kowalkowski & James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)

For centuries, psychologists have wrestled with the notion that some therapeutic gains seem to be made solely based on their contact with the mental health professional, regardless of specific intervention techniques. So what does the professional do to encourage these gains? Many believe at least a part of the reason various psychotherapy techniques are effective with clients is due to elements such as a strong therapeutic alliance and therapist qualities like empathy, positive regard, and attention. The research community has labeled these „Common Factors‰ and has extensively examined their importance in behavior change; this has resulted in thousands of psychology graduate students learning these techniques as they prepare to see psychotherapy clients, regardless of theoretical orientation. As behavior analysts, we are also in the business of bringing about change in others˜oftentimes not only our clients but also in the caregivers, family and staff who assist them. Based on the current standards for BCBA curriculum, there are currently no recommendations for behavior analysis students to learn these techniques. This presentation will discuss the research behind common factors theory and its applicability to behavior analysts. An analysis of the current educational and experiential requirements will follow, along with recommendations for the inclusion of such skills in the education of future behavior analysts.

It Isn't a Program Unless You Can Get It Run: Clinical Skills for Behavior Analysts. Lisa M. Todd (Wayne State University School of Medicine) & James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)

Service delivery in the field of behavior analysis encompasses a wide range of professional interactions with clients that go far beyond a well-designed intervention. In an ideal world, behavior analysts would write comprehensive treatment plans, assist their clients with building the skills necessary for successful interventions, and be assured that their clients would follow through on in-session and between-session practice. The end result would be successful service delivery and a satisfied client who is able to enjoy a better quality of life and improved functionality. In reality, clients and their family members may have their own ideas, they may demonstrate their disagreement with treatment recommendations overtly or with other forms of non-adherence, they may have wavering motivation to engage in recommended interventions, they have to manage competing demands, they may get incompatible advice from family and friends, and they may drop out of treatment. They may do all of these things and more. No matter how competently a behavior analyst may deliver his or her services, even the most well-designed intervention is only as good as the client's willingness to engage in it. In this presentation, barriers to effective service delivery will be discussed and potential solutions will be proposed.

1:30-2:50 pm Room 320 1.5 BACB Type-II CEUs
Behavioral Approaches to Cognitive and Social Phenomena: Concept Formation and Stereotype Threat
Chair: Daniel Maitland (Western Michigan University)

Abstraction is the process of selective responding to a perceptual or functional property that is common to all members of a class of stimuli. While many instances of abstraction involve responding to formal, non-arbitrary features of one's environment, Skinner (1957, p. 109) noted that certain forms of abstraction can be "peculiarly verbal. " In other words, through a specific history of reinforcement, non-arbitrary stimuli can be responded to in an arbitrary fashion. Stereotype threat is the idea that when provided with information that a test has gender differences, people will conform to the stereotype. This symposium will discuss the role of verbal abstraction in complex relational responses previously considered to be solely of the domain of cognitive psychology, and explore if psychological flexibility alters the relationship between stereotype threat and test performance. Additionally, data will be presented to explicate how verbally-mediated responses can be studied in a laboratory setting.

Verbal Abstraction and Hierarchical Categorization. Richard W. Seim (Cincinnati VA Medical Center), Michael N. Reynolds & Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)

A category is a class of stimuli that are grouped together because they occasion a common response in a given context (Zentall, Galizio, & Critchfield, 2002). It is often the case that categories can be subsumed by larger, more broadly defined categories, which are encompassed by even larger categories, ad infinitum. Thus, categorization may assume a taxonomic or hierarchical nature, whereby an asymmetric relation is established between categories in the hierarchy (Murphy & Lassaline, 1997). For example, while a zebra is an animal, an animal is not necessarily a zebra. This paper will discuss the role of hierarchical categorization responses and discuss the role that these responses may play in tact training and emergent word-referent relations. Particular emphasis will be given to the possible role of arbitrarily applicable responding to non-arbitrary stimuli in language acquisition and problem-solving tasks.

A Laboratory-Based Demonstration of Pragmatic Verbal Analysis. Michael N. Reynolds (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Seim (Cincinnati VA Medical Center) & Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)

Arbitrarily applicable relational responding to non-arbitrary stimuli may foster unique forms of responding to novel stimuli. For example, through multiple exemplar training, a child may be taught that certain wavelengths of light are "RED" and other wavelengths are "YELLOW. " Based on the stimulus equivalence/derived relational responding literature, these wavelengths should be brought into a hierarchical relation with color without any explicit training, showing a process whereby the physical/non-verbal environment is becoming partially verbal in that it is participating in arbitrarily applicable relational responding (Hayes et al. , 2001). Specifically, in this example, the response "COLOR" is controlled by wavelength, but not any particular wavelength. As such, when a new wavelength is introduced (e.g., "BLACK"), without any training this wavelength class and name should be bi-directionally related to "COLOR", demonstrating what has been termed "pragmatic verbal analysis" (Hayes et al. , 2001). The present study was an attempt to model this color-word training procedure using novel geometric shapes and nonsense words as non-arbitrary and arbitrary stimuli, respectfully. Sixteen adult males and females completed a computer program that used conditional discrimination training (match-to-sample) procedures to train symmetric and transitive relations along a hierarchy. Results were supportive of the predictions outlined by Hayes and colleagues (2001), suggesting that certain forms of hierarchical relational responding are mediated through verbal abstraction.

Behavior Analysis and Cognition. Scott T. Gaynor, Michael N. Reynolds (Western Michigan University) & Richard W. Seim (Cincinnati VA Medical Center)

Central to the fields of psychology and behavioral science is the study of how humans categorize the objects and events they encounter and how they learn to understand relations between stimuli (Rosch, 1978). Until the late 1980s, most accounts of concept learning and categorization were based on information-processing theories which either provided mere descriptions of behavioral phenomena or appealed to un-testable cognitive mechanisms responsible for these events. This paper will provide a background on certain topics often thought foreign to and outside of the purview of behavior analysis, such as the "basic level advantage" of categorization (Rogers & Patterson, 2007), and discuss how these topics could be approached from a behavior analytic standpoint.

Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Tests Performance: The Role of Psychological Flexibility. Daniel W. Maitland & Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University)

When taking a mathematics test under conditions of stereotype threat (ST; i.e. , when provided information that the test has shown gender differences) women under perform compared to those taking the same test who are not under conditions of stereotype threat. The purpose of this study is to examine whether psychological flexibility (i.e. , the ability to behave purposefully in the face of unpleasant internal states as described in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy model, see Hayes et al., 2006) alters the relationship between stereotype threat and test performance. Psychological flexibility involves the ability to contact internal states (thoughts, feelings, physiological sensations, etc. ) with awareness, but without struggling with them, so as to persist in goal-directed behavior (see Hayes et al. , 2004; 2006). Thus, when under stereotype threat, psychologically flexible individuals should be less preoccupied with heightened arousal and worry and more able to behave toward their value of performing well on the test compared to those who are lower in psychological flexibility. It is not that those who are psychologically flexible will experience quantitatively less anxiety, arousal, or worry, but that they will relate to these experiences differently than those low in psychological flexibility. We currently have data from 56 participants who have been randomly assigned to ST versus no-ST test conditions and expect to have data from 75 participants by February 2011.

3:00-3:50 pm Room 352 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
The Rapid Prompting Method: How a Good Magic Trick Became a Bad Therapy.  James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)

The Rapid Prompting Method (RPM), sometimes also known as "Informative Pointing" and "Alphabet Therapy," has been promoted as  "revolutionary" new intervention for establishing pointing- and writing-based communication in people who are non-verbal. Superficially resembling discrete-trial training, the Rapid Prompting Method appears to be a modified form of facilitated communication (FC)  in which the student is taught to respond directly to subtle non-physical cues provided by the facilitator rather than being guided by hand as in FC.  Through practice, the facilitator's awareness that he or she is guiding the student's choices gradually extinguishes, leaving the facilitator to attribute the output entirely to  the student. Also as in FC, authorship validation, data collection, and other methodological and ethical controls are strongly discouraged and avoided.  Despite there being no empirical evidence showing that Rapid Prompting can establish verbal behavior in non-verbal people, Rapid Prompting is nevertheless offered as a therapy by a growing number of treatment centers.  Some behavior analysts seem to be taking an interest in RPM as an adjunct to behavioral methods or an effective intervention in its own right, ignoring its methodological shortcomings, introductory textbook-level conceptual foundations, and complete lack of empirical support.  Ironically, the fundamental mechanism by which Rapid Prompting Method, Facilitated Communication, and similar methods work was first described by magician William Frederick Pinchbeck in 1805 in a classic book exposing the tricks of psychics and other frauds. 

3:00-4:20 pm Room 320 1.5 BACB Type-II CEUs
How to Assess Clinically and Interpret to Develop a Treatment Plan.
Chair: Krista M. Kennedy (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

This symposium will cover topics related to blending Applied Behavior Analysis with Clinical Psychology. First, there will be a historical overview regarding the split between Applied Behavior Analysis and Clinical Psychology including a discussion on the movement to separate licensure and BACB certification. The presentation will move to assessment and how to clinically assess a child using assessment tools and what is necessary in order to do an evaluation. There will be some discussion on behavioral, developmental, IQ, Adaptive behavior, and personality measurements. Second, there will be a discussion on how to use the information gathered through the assessment and put it into a behavioral treatment plan; describing what belongs in the treatment plan including what to consider in terms of family goals, making sure progress is maintained, and relating family function to the plan. Lastly, there will be a discussion on how to utilize in conjunction with ABA other strategies that target not only the child but also the parent such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy, parent and child directed goals, and assess how the parent impacts the child's treatment on a variety of levels.

Clinical Assessment for Children. Bethany Gorka (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

Before you begin an assessment it is important to determine what the client's presenting problems are. This can be achieved through a parent interview. The next step would be to determine which questionnaires and assessment tools should be chosen to evaluate the child's behavior and determine appropriate diagnosis. This presentation will discuss the types of questionnaires and assessment tools for different presenting problems and diagnoses as well as what this information tells us.

How to Use Information Gained Through Clinical Assessments in Treatment Planning. Krista Kennedy (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

This presentation will discuss how to incorporate the information from the clinical assessment into behavioral treatment planning. This will include information regarding what goes into a treatment plan, how to relate skill deficits to the plan, and how the family system as a whole needs to be considered when developing the treatment.

How to Incorporate Other Clinical and Behavioral Strategies During the Implementation Phase of Treatment. Rachel O'Doherty & Rachel Wheeling (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

This presentation will discuss additional clinical and behavioral strategies that can be used one in the implementation phase of treatment including how to do a family systems approach such as establishing goals for not only the child but also the parent's/caregivers. The presentation will then move on to dealing with additional factors that impact the family once a behavior plan established within the home. Topics will include how to help the family deal with the added stress involved, how to change parent's behavior to change the child's behavior, marriage stress, sibling issues, and how extended family impact treatment.

4:00-4:50 pm Room 352
Drug Detection, Behavioral Assessment, and Behavioral Treatment of Substance Abuse.  Marcus McKee (Eisenhower Center)

This presentation is meant to discuss technologies available to detect substance abuse and the pros and cons associated with the various technologies available. The presentation will also discuss ways to assess for the occurrence of substance abuse in your client and ways to conceptualize substance abuse/addiction in terms of directly observable and measurable behaviors. Finally this presentation will discuss ways to measure a clients' progress towards recovery (not just abstinence) in terms of behaviors which are strong indicators of recovery.

Thursday Workshops

10:10-4:30 pm Room 300 6.0 BACB Type-II CEUs
Crafting Connections: Contemporary Applied Behavior Analysis for Enriching the Social Lives of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  Ron Leaf, Ph.D. & Mitchell Taubman, Ph.D. (Autism Partnership) 6.0 BACB Type-II CEUs

Relatively limited attention in teaching children with autism has been devoted to the social area, and the focus is typically on basic skills. It is extremely important for children to learn to make meaningful social connections with their peers, starting as early as possible. In this Workshop you will learn about the effective application of contemporary ABA across a wide range of social skills for children with autism of all ages.
Topics to be discussed will include:

    •    ABA and Social, Play, and Communication Skills
    •    Social Skills Instructional Techniques
    •    The Problems with Existing Social Skills Curricula
    •    The Present Solution: The Social Skills Taxonomy
    •    Programming for Transfer to Everyday Life
    •    Making it Real: Authentic Competencies vs. Rote Skills

Cost $100
-- cost includes a free copy of the new book, Crafting Connections Contemporary Applied Behavior Analysis for Enriching the Social Lives of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder by Taubman, Leaf, & McEachin ($40 value).

1:30 pm - 4:30 pm Room 330
Enhancing Motivation for Behavior Change: Use of Motivational Interviewing. Katie Brogan PhD, RD (Behavior Change Consulting)

Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidenced-based guiding style of communication that promotes behavior change. MI can be delivered in many formats by a wide range of disciplines including medical consultations, outreach and intake, and longer-term psychotherapies. MI has been shown to be effective in brief encounters, as a stand-alone intervention, and as an adjunct to other evidence-based treatments.

WHO SHOULD COME: Anyone whose role includes talking with others about making and sustaining behavior change.

FORMAT: This workshop will focus on participant involvement and practice of introductory MI skills using video and live demonstrations and small group role-plays.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1) Participants will learn the rationale behind MI and the evidence that supports it. 2) Participants will practice 2-3 basic techniques used in MI. 3) Participants will discuss how MI can be applied to their own specialties and how to gain further training to achieve competence

Cost: $35
Attendance Limit: 50

Friday, February 25, 2011
8:00-10:00 a.m. Registration (Open all day) Room 350
Note: Continental breakfast will be available in the Ballroom during registration. Free for convention registrants

9:30-10:50 am Room 352 1.5 BACB Type-II Ethics CEUs
Symposium: Ethical Challenges in Clinical Service: Hidden Issues That Emerge When Boundaries are Crossed
Chair and Discussant: Flora Hoodin (Eastern Michigan University)

The likelihood of encountering ethical challenges is increased by some clinical services Behavior Analysts and Behavior Therapists provide. For example, conducting in-home discrete trial training, providing behavioral services in residential settings, and programming for generalization or community (re)-integration often present opportunities for dual relationships to occur. The dilemma for the professional is to recognize when boundaries are being crossed, generate and evaluate viable options to prevent boundary crossings from becoming boundary violations. The papers in this symposium will be case-centered, with discussion firmly based on The Behavior Analyst Certification Board Guidelines for Responsible Conduct, and the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct..

Residential Treatment: Could a Dual Relationship With One Resident Destabilize Others? Daniel Karper (Eastern Michigan University)

Residential treatment: The informality of the residential treatment setting lends itself to residents and staff developing a sense of casual familiarity with one another. In this context, a bond could easily develop between a resident and a residential staff member over mutual interests. This presentation explores how such a bond could complicate and destabilize staff relationships with other residents, and offers ways of analyzing options to avoid this occuring.

Personal or Professional: Might a Pre-Existing Personal Friendship Be Contaminated by Professional Responsibilities? Misty Sonk (Eastern Michigan University)

Pre-existing personal friendships: Might a pre-existing personal friendship be contaminated by professional responsibilities? This presentation explores the possible consequences of a dual relationship on the power dynamics of a personal relationship that also develops a professional dimension. Issues that should be considered in negotiating such a complex situation are discussed.

In-Home Services: When a Professional Behavior Analytic Relationship Easily Becomes Personal. Ashley Nowak (Eastern Michigan University)

In-home services: A professional behavior analytic relationship easily becomes personal. This presentation explores ways a boundary crossing could be addressed and resolved in the best interest of all parties involved.

10:00-10:50 am Room 320 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
A Practitioner Model for Undergraduate and Graduate Training In Autism. Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

A practitioner/service-provider manifesto/creed: We must train more students to become basic researchers. We must train more students to become applied researchers. But our journals and books are already full of evidence-based best practices, yet we are without enough practitioners to significantly impact the well-being of humanity by implementing those best practices. So even more importantly, we must produce more well-trained practitioners. Furthermore, our practitioner theses and dissertations (1) must really help the participating children, (2) must help the participating classroom or setting, (3) must help the student become a better practitioner, (4) must get the student a degree, (5) and a publication would be nice, but is not crucial. This presentation will illustrate an attempt to follow our manifesto/creed.

10:00-10:50 am Room 330 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
The Case for Private Behavioral Events.  Jay Moore (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)

Private behavioral events are an important topic in the theoretical, philosophical, and conceptual orientation of radical behaviorism.  This presentation makes the case for private behavioral events by addressing such questions as the following: (a)  Of what are we speaking when we speak of private behavioral events? (b)  What are two types of private behavioral events?  (c) What is the nature and causal status of private behavioral events?  (d) Are private behavioral events necessarily related functionally to public behavior?  (e)  How does the present view of private behavioral events compare with explanations in traditional psychology that appeal to internal, unobservable phenomena? In sum, the presentation argues that we can most effectively understand behavior, and bar the door to mentalism, when our interpretations of behavior recognize that events currently inaccessible to others but nonetheless from the behavioral dimension can influence behavior.

11:00-11:50 am Room 352 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Deconstructing the Time Out: What Do Mothers Understand About a Common Disciplinary Procedure? Amy K. Drayton (University of Michigan)

Problem behavior is extremely common throughout childhood, and time out (TO) is one of the most common disciplinary tactics used by parents to address problem behavior. However, despite the prevalence of use and five decades of research demonstrating the efficacy of TO, parents rate TO as one of the least useful behavior modification techniques. This discrepancy between parental opinion and empirical data may be due to the fact that all research conducted thus far has used adults highly trained in empirically-supported TO procedures. No previous research has examined the degree of similarity between TO conducted by untrained parents to empirically-supported TO procedures. Fifty-five mothers were asked to define TO and to provide information on how they conduct TO. In addition, videotaped vignettes were used to determine the extent to which mothers could identify errors in TO procedures and whether that ability was related to child problem behavior. Results indicate that participants' conceptualizations of TO differed considerably from the empirical rationale for TO. Relatively few participants reported adhering to or could identify the majority of parameters that have been shown to make TO effective. No significant relationships between TO accuracy and levels of child problem behavior were found. However, mothers who use TO procedures that are closer to the empirical ideal and who find TO to be more effective report using TO to punish a greater number of child problem behaviors.

11:00-11:50 am Room 320 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Sleep Problems in Children with Autism.
Rachel M. Knight & Carl M. Johnson, Ph.D. (Central Michigan University)

Sleep problems are common and persistent in typically developing children. However, sleep problems have been shown to be even more prevalent and severe in children with developmental disabilities, specifically autism. Children with autism have more difficulties related to long sleep latencies, more bedtime resistance, more frequent and lengthy night wakings, and increased sleep anxiety than typically developing children. Additionally, current research suggests that sleep problems may even exacerbate the symptoms of autism. Sleep difficulties have been associated with stereotypic behaviors, social skill deficits, and communication difficulties. Treatment of sleep problems may help to lessen some of these symptoms of autism. Since the sleep problems that present in children with autism are behavioral in nature, it seems that behavioral interventions would be effective in treating these problems. However, there is little controlled research regarding treatment options for sleep problems in children with autism. This presentation aims to provide an overview regarding the prevalence and types of sleep problems in children with autism. Directions for future research regarding sleep problems in children with autism and behavioral intervention strategies will be discussed.

11:00-11:50 am Room 330
Controlling Variables and Operant Classes of English Nominal and Verbal Constructions. Robert J. Dlouhy (Western Michigan University, Center for English Language and Culture)

Much research has been done in the area verbal behavior, but few if any systematic behavior-analytic descriptions of particular languages have been accomplished. It would seem that such descriptions would be possible, since human language is to some degree patterned.  Furthermore, linguists, language teachers, speech-language pathologists, and special education teachers would likely find such descriptions interesting and useful.  This paper will present a behavior-analytic interpretation of English noun phrases and verbal auxiliary phrases based on contemporary scholarly descriptions.   It will be claimed that such descriptions can be useful for identifying the variables that control complex verbal responses.  When the controlling variables have been interpreted from the descriptions, relations to response topographies can be described. These responses will be seen as often under multiple control of stimulus relations, many of which are deictic.  It will be shown that several classes of operant responses (i.e. , intraverbal/autoclitic framing responses), one for nominalizing and two for temporalizing, can be posited for English. The paper Hiawatha Behavioral Health Seeks a Full-Time LLP/BCBA to Help Improve and Expand Training and Clinical Serviceswill conclude with a discussion of how such response classes can be learned, limitations on such analyses in light of language variation and change, and the advantages of such analyses over certain current linguistic explanations of the same phenomena.

12:00-12:50 pm Room 330
Hiawatha Behavioral Health Job Interview and Information Meeting
Chair: Rocco L. Nocera, MA, BCBA (Hiawatha Behavioral Health)

Hiawatha Behavioral Health Seeks a Full-Time LLP/BCBA to Help Improve and Expand Training and Clinical Services: An applicant need only have completed coursework for the BCBA or LLP to be eligible for hire, but we prefer that the newly hired already possess the LLP. If not, we can discuss options individually.  If the individual has a history of assessing skill deficits, creating, conducting, training and monitoring acquisition programs for individuals with autism, we would be very interested in tailoring their clinical caseload so that their contributions can be emphasized.

Noon - 1:30 pm Lunch Period
(On your own--many selections on the first floor of the student center)

1:30-2:20 pm Room 352 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
ABA and OT Collaboration: How to Combine the Best of Both Worlds.
Conny Raaymakers & Katie Burpee

Discussion regarding the application of behavior analytic principles in the greater Grand Rapids area, along with how to collaborate and combine behavior analysis and occupational therapy to treat children and adolescents with autism and other behavioral disorders.

1:30-2:20 pm Room 320 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Using a Decision-making Protocol for Choice-Making Treatment of Problem Behavior for Children with Disabilities. Stephanie Peterson, Shawn Quigley, Manish Goyal, & Calvin Gage (Western Michigan University)

We have just completed a 4-year study of choice-making in children with disabilities, as a treatment for problem behavior maintained by escape from task demands. Our data indicate that the children's responses to intervention were somewhat idiosyncratic. As a result, we have developed a protocol for implementing ongoing assessment with intervention to determine when the intervention can be faded and when a more intrusive intervention is needed. This presentation will provide an overview of this assessment/treatment protocol and decision-making model. Video clips will be used to demonstrate the process. Participants will be provided with a weblink where they can download all materials we will demonstrate free of charge when they return to their work site.

1:30-2:50 pm Room 300 1.5 BACB Type-II CEUs
Animal Models of Important Behavioral Processes. Basic and Applied Implications.

Acute and Chronic Self-Administration of Alcohol Fails to Impact Impulsive Choice. John R. Smethells, Killi Lewis & Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)

Previous research has found that acute intraperitoneal (i.p. ) doses of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) increases impulsivity in rats during an inter-temporal choice procedure. In order to extend the generality of these findings, two experiments assessed how acute and chronic oral self-administration (SA) of EtOH alters impulsivity in rats. In Experiment 1, impulsivity was assessed during two daily sessions: in an AM session prior to EtOH SA and again in a PM session 15-m following EtOH SA of a 10% EtOH/10% sucrose solution. Acute SA resulted in doses previously found to alter impulsivity, but resulted in no systematic change in impulsivity during either session. Chronic SA for 21 days, however, produced similar doses and resulted in a decrease in impulsivity during the PM session, but resulted in no systematic change in impulsivity in the AM session. A direct replication was attempted in Experiment 2. Even though SA doses of EtOH were comparable to Experiment 1, no changes in impulsivity were obtained. These results are inconsistent with the previous studies and raises issues regarding the generality of the effect. One potential issue could be related to differences in the route and method of administration (i.p. injections versus oral SA).

Activity Anorexia in Rats: An Animal Model of Human Anorexia Nervosa. James T. Todd, Ph.D. (Eastern Michigan University) & Amy K. Drayton (University of Michigan)

Activity anorexia is a form of voluntary self-starvation induced by selective restriction of food availability in an environment with unlimited exercise opportunity. It bears many correspondences with anorexia nervosa in humans, and appears to be the same functional behavior. This presentation describes research that suggests the voluntary food restriction is not due to the formation of conditioned taste aversions, as has ben suggested by some researchers, but is due to a more general anhedonic state engendered by exercise. This anhedonia model more completely accounts for some aspects of human anorexia than one based on appetite suppression alone.

1:30-2:50 pm Room 330 1.5 BACB Type-II CEU
Some Foundational Issues in Behavioral Autism Treatment
Chair and Discussant: Erik Mayville (Connecticut Center for Child Development)

The success of ABA in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has led to its recognition as a standard treatment approach. The resulting burgeoning interest in ABA underscores the importance of educating professionals to meet this demand. A particular challenge of this task is to bring behavioral theory and conceptual analysis coherently within the context of ASD treatment. In this symposium, presenters will offer an overview of some fundamental aspects of conceptual analysis and intervention procedures in behavioral autism treatment, as well a review of the process of new behavior emerging from existing repertoires in learners with autism.

Developments in Conceptual Analysis and Intervention Procedures in Behavioral Autism Treatment. Erik Mayville (Connecticut Center for Child Development)

Over the past 50 years, a large body of literature has emerged demonstrating the utility of intervention procedures based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) to autism treatment. Conceptual analysis of learner behavior (e.g. , language, “joint attention”) as well as behavior analyst behavior (e.g. , describing intervention procedures, describing autism) is integral to maintaining conceptually consistent intervention efforts. The recently published book, Behavioral Foundations of Effective Autism Treatment, offers a unique combination of conceptual analyses and descriptions of intervention approaches in behavioral autism treatment. This discussion by the lead editor will provide an overview of key conceptual and procedural issues addressed in this book, including behavioral theory of autism, behavior analytic language, and behavior analyses of developmental constructs such as social referencing and joint attention.

Cumulative Hierarchical Learning and Behavioral Cusps. Michael P. Hixson (Central Michigan University)

A learning theory approach to child development is concerned with how learned behavior affects subsequent learning. Indeed, analyses of the human learning process reveal that acquisition of a complex skill is preceded by many levels of incremental accomplishment within that respective domain (Moerk, 1992; Hart & Risley, 1995). For children with autism, this process must be carefully environmentally engineered following a non-linear, complex, and dynamic process in which one repertoire provides the basis for acquisition of another. A relevant analysis of this process is Staats’ “cumulative-hierarchical learning” (Staats, 1981), a conceptualization of complex learning in which “basic behavioral repertoires” (BBR’s) simultaneously represent the outcome of previous learning (i.e. , a dependent variable) as well as the foundation for learning of future repertoires (i.e., independent variable). The similar notion of a “behavioral cusp” (Rosales-Ruiz & Baer, 1997), or behavioral changes that provide access to new contingencies, is also relevant. Though these concepts have received little, if any, formal attention as a means of analysis within behavioral autism treatment, they are especially relevant given the immense role that careful structuring of repertoires plays in learning for autistic children. This presentation will provide an overview of these concepts, with examples particularly relevant to autism treatment (i.e. , examples of particularly relevant BBR’s, sequences of BBR’s that might lead to desirable outcomes in language and social functioning domains)

2:30-3:50 pm Room 352
How to Get Into Graduate School. Alissa Huth-Bocks (Eastern Michigan University)

Advice, guidance, and hints about getting into graduate school. Will cover GRE, letters of recommendation, statement of purpose, selecting a school, masters versus doctorate, Psy.D. versus Ph.D., how many schools to apply to, meeting dates and deadlines, interviewing, and many more topics. Will include question-and-answer period.

2:30-3:50 pm Room 320
BAAM Annual Job and Practicum Fair

BAAM's annual Job and Practicum Fair will feature presentations by local and regional organizations and agencies that hire behavior analysts and sponsor practicum opportunities. Following the formal presentations, job seekers may meet with representatives of the agencies and organizations.

3:00-3:50 pm Room 330 1.0 BACB Type-II CEU
Implications of the What Works Clearinghouse Single-Case Design Standards for Applied Behavior Analysis. Robin M. Kuhn, Michael D. Hixson, Abbie Barrett, Andrew Cook, Jessica Rames, Lauren Taraski & Valerie Weber (Central Michigan University)

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 both require the use of scientifically-based instruction (Reschly, 2008). The Institute of Education Sciences (IES), established in 2002, was created to conduct, fund, and disseminate educational research. The aim of IES‚ "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC) is dissemination of scientific evidence for what works in education. In June of 2010, the What Works Clearinghouse released standards for evaluating single-case designs (SCD) (Kratochwill, Hitchcock, Horner, Levin, Odom, Rindskopf, & Shadish). Included are standards for assessing design rigor and intervention effectiveness. Given that single-case design is the primary research method used in applied behavior analysis, these standards will likely have implications for behavior analytic research and practice. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the WWC single-case design standards, and discuss the implications for the field of applied behavior analysis. Data mined from the last year‚s worth of SCD research articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis will be used to illustrate the degree to which each of the standards are met. In addition, the overall percentage of studies meeting all SCD evidence standards will be reported.

3:00-3:50 pm Room 300
Cognitivization: The Mirror Image of Somatization? The Nature of Subjective Sense of Cognitive Impairment.  Laszlo Erdodi (Eastern Michigan University /London Health Science Center) & Renee Lajiness-O'Neill (Eastern Michigan University)

Somatization is a psychiatric diagnosis  applied to patients who persistently complain of vague physical symptoms with no verifiable medical cause. The common explanation is that internal psychological conflicts are unconsciously expressed as physical symptoms. Patients with somatization disorder often over-utilize health care services and are resistant to objective findings that suggest they are healthy. The opposite trend can also be observed in clinical practice: some patients with neurocognitive profiles within normal limits insisting that they have cognitive impairments or are excessively worried about it. The possible reasons and mechanisms behind this phenomenon are discussed, along with implications to neuropsychological assessment and treatment recommendations.

Friday Workshops

10:00 am -1:00 pm Room 300 3.0 BACB Type-II CEUs
Using Functional Assessment to Address Sleep Problems for Individuals with Autism
Kim Renner (Sullivan, Nolan, Krone, Moesta, & Associates, PC)
When individuals with autism are not sleeping well, there is a negative effect on individual learning and functioning as well as on the lives of caregivers. While many programs for teaching individuals with autism do not prioritize sleep as a treatment objective, improving sleep for individuals with autism has a positive impact on student learning, family functioning, and marital satisfaction (of parents).
  • a procedure for collecting data to assess current patterns of sleep and
    problem behavior related to sleep
  • how to evaluate the data to determine the function of the problem behavior
    and choose an appropriate intervention
  • several treatment strategies used to treat specific sleep problems
  • ongoing monitoring and treatment of relapse

Kim Renner, a Board Certified Behavior Analyst, holds a Masters Degree in Clinical Behavioral Psychology from Eastern Michigan University, a Limited License in Psychology, and is an Ohio Autism Scholarship Provider. Kim has presented workshops and lectures on topics related to autism such as basic behavioral teaching and strategies, management of problem behaviors, sleep problems, toileting, behavioral strategies and data collection in the classroom, functional behavioral assessment in educational and mental health settings, life skills, and generalization. She currently works as a consultant to public and parochial schools in Norwest Ohio, for the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation, and as an associate in the psychology practice of Sullivan, Nolan, Krone, Moesta, & Associate, PC. She is inspired by her young adult son with autism.

Cost: $40

10:00 am - 4:30 pm Room 360 (Kiva Room) 6.0 BACB Type-II CEUs
An In-Depth Analysis of Prompting Strategies and Their Effectiveness. Michelle Gagliano MA, TLLP, BCBA, Krista M. Kennedy MS, LLP, BCBA, Heather Burns BS, Melissa Huss BS. & Jenelle Wade BA (Children's Hospital of Michigan Autism Center)

An in-depth analysis of prompting strategies and their effectiveness. The following workshop will review the literature on prompts as well as define multiple prompting strategies. Discussion will entail when each prompt is best utilized and the skills the learner must possess for the prompt to be optimally effective. Role playing and assessment of skills will be utilized to identify when each prompt is most effective. Reducing prompt dependency, fading prompts and teaching strategies will also be topics of discussion.

Cost: $80/person

Poster Session and Social
Friday, February 25, 4:00 pm
Ballroom B (2nd Floor)

Behavioral Activation-Associated Change on Multiple Measures of Depression and Antidepressant Skill Sets: A Preliminary Validation Study of the BADS.  Cory Stanton, Sofia Peters, Satoshi Ozeki, & Spates C. Richard (Western Michigan University)

Behavioral Activation (BA) was derived from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) as a demonstrably core component of that intervention for depression. It has subsequently emerged as an effective stand-alone treatment with many features that argue in its favor over standard CBT for some populations. Furthermore, contemporary behavioral activation includes a specific focus on the ideographic, functional relationship between specific activities and symptoms of depression. In an attempt to evaluate constructs central to mapping change with BA, Kanter, et al. ,( 2006) proposed a self-report measure that examines changes in client behavior over the course of behavioral activation therapy, and it was used in a recent clinical trial that evaluated a computer-based BA intervention for depressed individuals. BADS is a 25-item measure that consists of four subscales (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment, and Social Impairment), although for purposes of the present study, only the Activation and Avoidance/Rumination subscales were used. BADS was used along with other standard measures of depressive symptoms to evaluate depression status and change in depressive symptoms as a function of treatment.  In this poster we present data that reveal the relationship between change on the BADS and the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition in terms of overall and component scores on each measure. These data offer preliminary support for the BADS as a valid instrument for conveniently documenting change associated with BA therapy.

Changes in Depression Component Scores as a Function of Empirically Supported Interventions for Depression.  Lauren Conkright & Richard Spates (Western Michigan University)

This poster presents data derived from 3 randomized trials of empirically supported therapies for the treatment of depression. It will highlight changes observed in the factorial components of the Beck Depression Inventory consisting of Cognitive, Affective and Somatic features of depression. This mega analytic review compares these outcome findings for 6 interventions. The were comprised of two medication interventions consisting of one evidence-based protocol and a Treatment As Usual (TAU) approach in Community Mental Health. Additional interventions consisted of  two computer treatments for depression that have both shown initial efficacy, as well as two face to face therapies including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Therapy. The data are briefly summarized in terms of overall global findings for these comparisons, but will highlight somatic, affective and cognitive outcomes for patients in each condition. Findings reveal that component symptom reductions that were consistent with overall total score change patterns, irrespective of the intervention used. Face-to-face CBT and face-to-face BA were the most efficacious treatments, with computerized BA following closely without a significant difference between these interventions.

Circadian Rhythm Management to Treat Night Wakings in Young Children. Rachel M. Knight & Carl M. Johnson (Central Michigan University)

This study examined the effectiveness of using circadian rhythm management (CRM) as the sole treatment for night wakings and bedtime resistance in young children. Three families of children with sleep problems between the ages of 12 months and 6 years participated.  A multiple baseline design across participants was used. Three families completed a baseline of various lengths followed by one month of CRM during which parents were instructed to follow set schedules for their children's sleep and wake times, nap times, and meal times. Data were collected from sleep diaries completed by parents. One month after formal treatment ended, follow-up data were collected for one week.  Due to special circumstances that occurred during the treatment phase, an ABAB reversal design was used for a fourth family. Parents completed a social validity scale during follow-up to assess their satisfaction with treatment.  Results indicated that CRM was effective in decreasing the frequency and duration of night wakings along with decreasing sleep latency for most participants.  Parents reported that their children were less resistant going to bed and slept better as a result of CRM. 

Comparison of BAML vs Beating-the-Blues Computer Treatments on Process and Outcome Measures of Depressed Individuals.  Cory Stanton, Satoshi Ozeki, Sofia Peters & C. Richard Spates  (Western Michigan University)

Computer interventions for behavioral health are fast emerging as alternatives to traditional face-to-face therapy for individuals who suffer from depression and anxiety disorders. Yet, in the United States few studies have been reported on use of these therapy alternatives. This poster presentation examines both comparative outcome and process measures associated with two computer treatments for clinical depression.  Based on separate clinical trials, the data were entered into a mega analysis to determine differential efficacy, process variations, and client characteristics associated with each intervention. Measures for each intervention included (a) time to complete each session, (b) supervision time required for patients undergoing treatment by each computer treatment, (c) depression score change over time and end-state functioning of patients, and (d) percent change from pre to 6 month follow-up. One program is based on the CBT model and the other on the Behavioral Activation intervention model. Each treatment model is descriptively summarized in terms of key similarities and differences.

The Effect of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior on Inappropriate Vocalizations in a Kindergarten Child. Misty C. Sonk & Tamara L. Perry (Eastern Michigan University)

This study investigated effectiveness of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing inappropriate vocalizations in a 4-year old male in a kindergarten classroom. Using a reversal design, the subject received verbal praise and earned a sticker for not yelling or talking with an inappropriately loud voice for the duration of the interval. The results of the study showed that the DRO treatment was effective in reducing the rate of inappropriate vocalizations to zero.

The Effects of a DRO Procedure on Eye Closing Behavior in a Child with Autism.  Tareyn L Mos, Kelli Perry & Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)

The current study looks at decreasing eye closing behavior in a student with Autism using a DRO schedule. Eye closing was measured using a whole interval recording system with increasing time intervals from 10 seconds to 4 minutes. The reinforcement schedule incorporated a token system with differing token ratios (1-4 tokens). Results showed the percentage of intervals with eyes open during work times increased to approximately 80% of the time while seated at a desk.

An Evaluation of a Preparatory System for Transitioning from One Classroom to the Next with Children Diagnosed with Autism. Andrew Millerwise, Brighid Fronapfel, Christopher Escobar, Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

The purpose of this present investigation is to establish foundational skills in children with autism to prepare them for a group skills classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants is employed to measure performance. Behaviors involving independence in transitions, toileting, and center-based instruction are targeted. The dependent variable chosen is number of supplemental stimuli in the form of verbal, gestural, and physical prompts used during the completion of a transition or activity (e.g. toileting). The participants in this study have a learning history of one-on-one discrete trial training in an Early Childhood Developmental Delay classroom, which is not congruent with the instructional style of the group skills classroom. This research shows improvements in student independence across transitions and activities such as toileting defined by a reduction in the use of various prompts and prompting strategies, promoting participant independence in the classroom.

Facilitation of Exposure Therapy with D-Cycloserine for Social Anxiety Disorder: Individual Participant and Process Measures.  Christina Sheerin, Erica Kasemodel, Nicole French, David Lawrence, Kelsey Nimmo, & C. Richard Spates (Western Michigan University)

Exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders is an efficacious treatment, but positive results do not always last or generalize.  In order to improve this intervention, more focus has been applied to better understanding the mechanism of extinction, the process assumed to be at work in exposure therapies.  Extinction is considered a form of new learning, and at the neural level the NMDA system is considered crucial in fear conditioning and extinction learning.  The use of NMDA partial agonists has been investigated as a potential way to improve learning during exposure therapy.  Promising results of animal studies have shown that administration of D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the NMDA receptor site and an FDA approved drug, improves extinction learning.  This has led to preliminary research using DCS to facilitate exposure treatments for numerous anxiety disorders in humans.  Most of these studies have shown that DCS does indeed lead to faster rates of improvement and recovery.  The current study utilized a double-blind placebo-controlled design with the purpose of providing a replication and extension of earlier findings, using a population with social anxiety disorder and a five session, manualized exposure-based protocol for public speaking anxiety.  This poster will present individual session-by-session data with the goal of providing a better understanding of the effect(s) DCS has on exposure therapy by utilizing repeated measures with group and single-subject comparisons of behavioral and self-report anxiety measures.  This poster will also investigate potential generalization effects, which has not been done with human participants to date.

A Follow-up Analysis of a Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing with Direct Reinforcement Procedure to Determine the Conditions and Pre-requisite Skills which are most Conducive for Successful Acquisition of a Mand Repertoire in Children Diagnosed with Autism.  Brittain Coleman, Richard W. Malott, Joe Shane, & Brighid Fronapfel-Sonderegger (Western Michigan University)

In the past, using stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures to increase the frequency of vocalizations has shown robust, but temporary effects. In an ongoing study employing a stimulus-stimulus pairing with direct reinforcement strategy to establish a generalized vocal mand repertoire in children diagnosed with autism, so far there have been impressive results that suggests results contradicting what previous research has demonstrates.  This paper presents follow up data in an attempt to further describe the conditions under which this procedure took place and also to attempt identify the specific contingencies which contributed to establishing the repertoires demonstrated by participants. Also of interest are the variables responsible for the participant's retention of verbal responses over an extended period of time. The target behaviors of the participant were identified as functional vocalizations, nonsense vocalizations, instances of vocal stereotypy, and instances of physical self-stimulation. The target behaviors of the tutor were identified as the number of times in which the child's functional vocalizations were reinforced, specifying reinforcement for those vocalizations as either being the corresponding stimulus or social reinforcement, the number of times in which the child's nonsense vocalizations were reinforced. The functional vocalizations trained in the before-mentioned combined SSP and direct reinforcement strategy were accompanied by a protocol which instructed the tutor to immediately reinforce specific vocalizations with the only corresponding stimulus.  In an effort to explain the successes of this ongoing research this paper will also compare and contrast a specific child's vocal repertoire before the research began to the current repertoire, and also compare the pre-requisite skills exhibited by this specific child to other children in which similar procedures have been unsuccessful.

Functional Communication Training Using Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement and Increasing Work Effort to Gain Compliance.  Christine Gormont, Richard Malott & Brighid Fronapfel-Sonderegger (Western Michigan University)

The research shows that functional communication training (FCT) is a proven method for decreasing problem behavior and increasing task compliance. The following study is a based on a previous investigation conducted by Peterson and colleagues. (2009, in press) The present study formatted the procedure to meet the particular child's needs, skill set, and environmental conditions using an AB design. The child had the choice of three requests: 1) Mand for Break using a visual "break" card, 2) Mand for Work using a visual "work" card, and 3) Escape Problem Behavior. Each of these responses  yielded different outcomes. If the child selected the "break" card, the child received a 45 second break with moderate reinforcement. If the child selected the "work" card, the child completed the tasks required and then received a 2 minute break with highly preferred reinforcement. If the child engaged in problem behavior, the child received a 10 second break from demands with no reinforcement. This study also incorporated increasing levels of task requirement in order to earn reinforcement when work option was selected. It was hypothesized that FCT would decrease problem behavior associated with escape from demand and that the child would begin to select the work option in order to receive the highly preferred reinforcement. The results from this intervention are not yet available.

Helping Students Improve their Classroom Behavior: Pre-service Special Educators' Behavior Plans.  Karen J. Carney & Selected Eastern Michigan University Students

Working with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders requires strategies and interventions for both academics and behavior.  Pre-service special education teachers at EMU are taught to conduct behavior change plans with selected public school students involving targeting one behavior, determining a hypothesis about that behavior, then designing, teaching and reinforcing a positive replacement behavior to support that student's success.  Graphing baseline and intervention behavior shows the pre-service teachers any change in the target behavior, as the beginning steps in modifying surface behavior in students with behavior problems.

Increasing Appropriate Play-Related Social Interactions Using a Video Modeling Treatment Package.  Jonathan D Timm, Jennifer Mrljak, Kelli Perry & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
The current literature supports video modeling as an effective means of teaching skills to almost all groups of learners.  The present study focuses on increasing appropriate play-time social interactions of a three year old child diagnosed with autism using a video modeling intervention package that includes the following: a) a choice of the video play procedures, b) video modeling of a variety of 3 component complex play interactions, c) a token system, d) an activity schedule, and e) a choice of video reinforcers.  Using an ABCA experimental design, baseline was compared to two intervention conditions (live modeling and video modeling), and finally the maintenance of social interactions was assessed using the same stimuli without the video components.  Additionally, data on problem behavior exhibited during scheduled play periods in baseline conditions was compared to the frequency of problem behavior exhibited after the intervention was put in place.  The outcome of the data is used to discuss video modeling as compared to live modeling, and the various potential reasons for its effectiveness are explored. 

Integration of Mirror Therapy and Applied Behavior Analysis for the Rehabilitation of Upper-Limb Hemiparesis and Learned Nonuse in Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury. Matthew D. Sabo & Tamara L. Perry (Eastern Michigan University)

Hemiparesis is defined as a weakness or loss of motor function on one side of the body, whereas learned nonuse is defined as a deficit in motor functioning that can be attributed to the effects of learning. Current evidence-based treatments for the treatment of upper-limb hemiparesis and learned nonuse include neurobehavioral and applied behavior analytic treatments. A case study on the rehabilitation of learned nonuse of an upper-extremity for a man with hemiparesis secondary to traumatic brain injury will be presented. A novel treatment package for learned nonuse was implemented, which consisted of both applied behavior analytic (i.e., prompting, positive practice, reinforcement) and neurobehavioral (i.e., mirror therapy) techniques. Results demonstrated a significant increase in the use of the affected hand during the intervention phase. In addition, some gains were maintained at six months follow-up as prompts were faded and some of the reinforcers were thinned out. Discussion suggests that a multiple-baseline study of the intervention is the next logical step in order to further evaluate the efficacy of this intervention for learned nonuse.

A Mega-Analytic Review of the Effects of Initial Trends in Depression Scores Across Multiple Clinical Trials on Treatment Outcome.  C. Richard Spates, Christina Sheerin, & Satoshi Ozeki (Western Michigan University)

Recent Meta Analytic evaluations of medication treatments for clinical depression has raised empirical challenges to their efficacy for any but the most severely depressed patients. While initial severity is one index of a critical feature of patients entering treatment, additional evidence points to the relevance of initial trends in depression status as being potentially more important.  Yet few clinical trials are implemented in such a manner as to accrue data over brief intervals of time at the start of treatment so as to permit an analysis of these trends. In short, patients entering treatment may be experiencing symptom worsening, symptom improvement, or be relatively stable with regard to symptoms when measured of two-three weeks prior to beginning treatment. In this poster we examine data from clinical trials where repeated depression assessments permitted the establishment of initial trends, and as such allowed the analysis of the effects of such trends on end-state functioning.  This analysis compares the effect sizes of both the designed interventions and initial trend categories. Initially worsening clients not surprisingly showed poorer end-state functioning irrespective of intervention except Behavioral Activation.

Noncontingent Teacher and Peer Attention as a Treatment for Disruptive Peer Behavior. Aimee M. Moore & Tamara L. Perry (Eastern Michigan University)

A single-subject ABAC reversal design was used to examine the effects of noncontingent teacher and peer attention on the frequency of a four year-old boy‚s disruptive peer behaviors in a preschool setting. All noncontingent attention sessions consisted of delivering attention on an FT 3-minute schedule and both conditions were shown to reduce disruptive peer behaviors relative to the baseline conditions. The results extend previous findings (e.g., Austin & Soeda, 2008; Rasmussen & O'Neill, 2006) that attention-maintained disruptive behaviors can be effectively diminished using a noncontingent reinforcement procedure.

Product Usability Testing of a Webcam Supervision Approach to a Computer-Based Treatment for Clinical Depression. Sofia Peters & C. Richard Spates (Western Michigan University)

With the advent of computer-based interventions for treatment of common mental health problems, many such interventions are considered self-help and require no outside supervision, i.e. iCounselor™, Depression Skills at Work™, and MoodGym™.  Others are considered more serious treatments and require at least limited oversight by a person knowledgeable of the program and certain management issues that arise in the treatment of depression, i.e. Beating-the-Blues™, Good Days Ahead™, and Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation™. These latter programs have been offered in professional practices under supervision of on-site specialists or assigned lower level personnel.  While reduced expense is one attractive feature of computer guided treatments, if supervision time cannot be maintained rather efficiently, they may lose some of their attractiveness to professional practice. This poster reports findings from the use of a webcam supervisory approach to the program Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation™ in terms of comfort by end users, satisfaction and specific qualitative features associated with such supervision.

Prolonged Exposure, Mindfulness, and Emotion Regulation for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.  Lauren A. Frye, C. Richard Spates, Rebecca Winstead, Ronald J. French & Amber S. Combs (Western Michigan University)
Although several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE), several investigators have expressed concerns about the clinical applications of PE in practice.  Such concerns include the exacerbation of symptoms during treatment, difficulties with client treatment compliance, and high dropout rates before and during the early stages of treatment.  Investigators have additionally suggested that the high dropout rate associated with exposure therapies, like PE, occurs because some Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) clients are not willing to tolerate the necessary exposure to feared stimuli.  Skills training in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation may help severe PTSD clients refrain from escaping, avoiding, or attempting to control the anxious arousal that would be necessary to achieve the beneficial effects of treatment.  By directing client's attention to the experienced sensation of their anxious arousal, these preliminary skill sets may comprise a helpful instruction prior to the implementation of PE.  The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether PE, augmented with preliminary skill-building in DBT Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation would successfully increase the tolerability of PE for clients with severe PTSD.  Data from this investigation will be presented to address several findings including 1) the changes of measured arousal during the course of the adapted PE with Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation skills training; 2) client's reports of consumer satisfaction and tolerance during the course of the adapted PE; and 3) whether severely disturbed PTSD diagnosed clients show corresponding elevations in measured Anxiety Sensitivity.

Social Stories and Peer Modeling Used to Increase Social Skills.  Julie Sanchez, Austin Misfud & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

According to the APA, autism is one of the most severe developmental disabilities causing significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Currently, autism affects 1 in 110 children and 1 in 70 boys. One defining characteristic of autism is a deficit in social skills including difficulties in appropriate interaction with peers. These deficits have been linked to other detrimental outcomes including poor academic performance, peer rejection, and other maladaptive behaviors. This study combines two behavioral components, social stories and peer modeling. A multiple probe design across behaviors will be used to evaluate the effectiveness in reducing inappropriate behaviors (e.g. sitting or standing too closely to peers) and increasing appropriate behaviors (e.g. playing with peers) and functional communication reciprocation with peers. Findings are expected to show that a behavioral treatment intervention package used with an older child can help improve social skills and result in many indirect benefits including decreasing maladaptive behaviors in the classroom and in home. According to the APA, autism is one of the most severe developmental disabilities causing significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Currently, autism affects 1 in 110 children and 1 in 70 boys. One defining characteristic of autism is a deficit in social skills including difficulties in appropriate interaction with peers. These deficits have been linked to other detrimental outcomes including poor academic performance, peer rejection, and other maladaptive behaviors. This study combines two behavioral components, social stories and peer modeling. A multiple probe design across behaviors will be used to evaluate the effectiveness in reducing inappropriate behaviors (e.g. sitting or standing too closely to peers) and increasing appropriate behaviors (e.g. playing with peers) and functional communication reciprocation with peers. Findings are expected to show that a behavioral treatment intervention package used with an older child can help improve social skills and result in many indirect benefits including decreasing maladaptive behaviors in the classroom and in home.

Teaching Joint Attention to a Child with Autism.  Kristine Oddo, Brighid Fronapfel - Sonderegger & Richard Malott (Western Michigan University) 

A  distinguishing characteristic of people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders is a deficit in joint attention. Literature also notes that deficiencies in joint attention affect appropriate social and communicative skills. The present study employed an AB design, using an errorless learning procedure, with a time delay, to teach joint attention. The participant was a 3-year-old male diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder . Joint attention was broken down into three separate behaviors; gaze following, shifting, and initiating . For the purposes of this study, these three dependent variables are defined as follows: gaze following: the participant engaging in eye contact with the experimenter, as the experimenter turns their head and eyes toward an object within a specified distance, the participant also shifts the direction of his gaze to look at the object; looking back: after an occurrence of gaze following, the participant returning to eye contact with the experimenter; initiating: behaviors resulting in the experimenter's attention to an object that the participant indicates by pointing at, vocalizing, or pulling the experimenter towards. Other response dimensions relative to joint attention were addressed, such as duration of eye contact with the experimenter and duration of eye contact with the procedural materials.

Treating Depression in Community Mental Health: A Multi-Site Pilot of Evidence Based Interventions Among Low-Income Individuals. Kellie Edmonds, Lauren Frye, & C. Richard Spates (Western Michigan University)

Socio-economically challenged individuals are rarely the targets of clinical intervention research based on evidence-based therapies. Yet virtually all descriptive findings point to this group as showing a high density of need for such interventions. They therefore become the users of interventions that have been tested only on other research participants from other socio-demographics. This poster presentation examines the direct findings from a community mental health clinical trial of depression treatments for Medicaid eligible clients.  Tested were 2 computer-guided interventions including computer-based CBT, a medication guided interventions (MIMA), a face-to-face CBT intervention, and a standard medication intervention (TAU). The data are compared along demographic characteristics, outcome dimensions that include the Beck Depression Inventory-II and change in diagnostic status. Findings are examined as well along process dimensions including client satisfaction, session length and supervision time for selected interventions. When compared to TAU, the empirically supported interventions showed reductions in symptoms with face-to-face CBT being superior to others interventions. 

Use of a Shaping Program to Increase Tolerance to Self-Care Tasks in a Boy with Autism.  Ambreen Shahabuddin & Tamara Perry (Eastern Michigan University)

The purpose of this study was to develop a shaping program to increase tolerance to self-care tasks in the form of hair-brushing and tooth-brushing in an 8-year-old boy with autism within the home setting. Non-compliant behaviors were maintained by escape from the demand of his parents brushing his hair and teeth.  Steps for hair-brushing and tooth-brushing were created through a task analysis.  The treatment package consisted of shaping, prompting, fading and reinforcement.  Food and activity reinforcers were selected based on results of paired preference assessments.  Parent training was then conducted to transfer stimulus control.  Results of the study demonstrate the effectiveness of a shaping package with respect to increasing compliance during self-care behaviors initiated by the parents.

The Use of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior Through a Token Economy to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Woman with Cognitive Impairment. Kristina Alitawi & Tamara L. Perry (Eastern Michigan University)

Adults with cognitive impairments frequently have deficits in appropriate social skills, as well as behavioral excesses in inappropriate social behavior (Leblanc, Hagopian, & Maglieri, 2000). Thus, it is important to design interventions to help decrease these disruptive behaviors. The current study focuses on the management of disruptive loud voice behavior (i.e. , yelling or talking in a voice level inappropriate for indoor settings) in a 20-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical autism and mild mental retardation. A token economy procedure was implemented using a DRO interval as the basis for earning tokens. Sessions were conducted in several community settings, including a cafeteria and a shopping center. Results indicated that the DRO-based token economy procedure was effective by successfully reducing the rate of the disruptive loud voice behavior to nearly zero. In addition, results were maintained when the DRO interval was increased from 20 to 30 minutes.

The Use of Video Modeling to Teach Play Skills.  Kristin Loeffler (Western Michigan University) 

Children diagnosed with Autism often lack play skills, especially in regards to reciprocal pretend play.  The behaviors they exhibit are repetitive, unimaginative, and lack social qualities. A great deal of previous research has shown that video modeling is an effective behavioral procedure used to teach children with autism a variety of skills. Specifically, video modeling has been show to produce rapid skill acquisition, increase play initiations, and increase the length of play interactions for children with autism.  The purpose of the present study was to implement video modeling to teach a child with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with a typically developing peer.   The study was conducted in a classroom at the Kalamazoo Autism Center. Videos of scripted play scenarios, ranging between 8-10 verbalizations and 4-8 actions were made for three toys sets and shown to the children.  The different toy sets trained consisted of a play kitchen, a doctor set, and construction tools.  Data were taken on the number of appropriate play actions, appropriate verbalizations, and reciprocal play interactions. 

Using Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible Behavior and Mand Training to Decrease Aberrant Behaviors in a Child Diagnosed With Autism.  Taylor Barker, Brighid H. Fronapfel, Katherine Beckstrom & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

A differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) protocol was used along with mand training to decrease aberrant behaviors and increase functional behaviors in a child with autism. Data will be presented in an ABC design and will be discussed along with previous interventions and their possible reasons for failure. Other topics that will be considered are staff/tutor implementation issues as well as reinforcer and preference assessment issues. The intervention took place at a local early childhood developmental delay classroom. The participant was a 4-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. The behaviors targeted for reduction were scratching and biting of the undergraduate student tutors that worked with this child on a daily basis. The behaviors targeted for increase were either vocal mands for desired reinforcers or mands using an icon exchange system to ask for desired reinforcers. This study was a single subject case study. The results should be viewed as preliminary as very little interobserver agreement was taken.

Using PECS to Increase Social Interactions for Children with Autism.  Amanda Smith, Brighid Fronapfel,  & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) allows persons with disabilities to communicate with others using a variety of icons corresponding to specific items or activities.  The purpose of the present study was to teach children with autism to ask for items of interest from their peers. The setting of the study was an Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo Michigan.  Social interactions are an important aspect of a child's development and are a major deficit for children with autism. The participants of the study were two pre-school aged children who were trained to ask for items using PECS from another child in the classroom.  The child receiving the icon was also trained to discriminate the item being requested and deliver the appropriate reinforcer. Correct exchanges were defined as the child handing the correct icon for the item to the other child, and the child receiving the icon gives the correct item to the child. Teaching our pre-school aged children this skill benefits them in their social development in our classroom and better prepares them for future academic and social settings with peers.

Validation of a Measure to Assess the Prevalence and Severity of Fears in an Adult Population.  Christine M. Foster (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Seim (Cincinnati VA Medical Center), Amber L. Derthick, & C. Richard Spates (Western Michigan University)

Specific phobias and social phobias are some of the most common anxiety disorders, affecting 13% of the individuals at some point in their life (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Much is known about the incidence and prevalence of certain phobias, such as phobias of snakes, spiders, and blood (Agras, Sylvester, & Oliveau, 1969); however, very little data exists on the epidemiology of most other phobias.  This is problematic because, due to this lack of data, these life-impairing fears tend to go unnoticed by both therapists and researchers. The present study investigated the reliability and validity of the Quick Phobia Survey (QPS), a paper-and-pencil measure designed to assess an individual's degree of fear, avoidance, and impairment regarding 30 different objects and situations.  Forty-two adult males and females participated in this study. Each participant completed the QPS along with several well-established measures of specific phobia.  In addition, each participant completed a behavioral approach test that measured how close he or she could stand to a caged ball python and a caged Chilean rose-haired tarantula. Measures of convergent validity, predictive validity, and test-retest reliability all demonstrated that the QPS is an adequate measure of multiple phobias and that this instrument may be used in future prevalence studies.

Vocal Verbal Vocabulary Acquired During The Icon Exchange: Behavior Analysis Training System Icon Exchange.  Jennie Shooltz & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
The implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System has been proven effective in providing children with a functional communication tool. In some instances of this implementation children have gained a vocal verbal vocabulary. In the Early Childhood Developmentally Delayed classroom at the WoodsEdge Learning Center a slightly modified version of PECS is used, called the Icon Exchange. The goal for this project is to follow four children in the ECDD classroom and record the progression of their vocal verbal vocabulary as they progress through the Icon Exchange. Each of these four children entered the classroom with fewer than 10 reliably spoken words, and two of the four reliably used three to four signs.  The main focus of this project is to determine whether these children acquire a vocabulary based on the icons that they have been exposed to, or if it is based on those icons and spontaneous words.

Will Gamble for Food: Preference for Amount Variability using a Token Reinforcement Paradigm. Carla H. Lagorio (University of Michigan) & Timothy D Hackenberg (Reed College).

In a risky-choice paradigm, pigeons were given repeated choices between variable and fixed numbers of token reinforcers (stimulus lamps arrayed above the response keys), with each earned token exchangeable for food. The average number of tokens provided by the variable option was parametrically manipulated across conditions; the fixed amount was held constant within a phase and was altered across phases, assuming values of 2, 4, 6, or 8 tokens per choice. The variable distribution was either exponential or rectangular and provided between 0 and 12 tokens. Results indicated strong risk-prone behavior: preference for the variable option when the fixed option provided equal or greater numbers of tokens than the variable amount. Only when the alternatives provided widely disparate amounts favoring the fixed option did preference depart from the risk-prone pattern. Preference for the variable option was reduced or eliminated when tokens were removed from the experimental context, suggesting that the token presentation played a key role in maintaining risk-prone choice patterns. Overall, the results indicate that systematic risk sensitivity can be attained with respect to reinforcer amount, and that tokens may be critical in the development of such preferences - a finding with implications for the development of an animal model of gambling.