BAAM 2008 Convention Program
(Subject to Modification)
let BAAM know about errors and omissions
Workshops | Posters
| Thursday | Friday
BACB and Michigan
State Board CEUs available.
See session information for session with BACB CEUs.
Note to BAAM presenters
can supply a digital LCD projector. BAAM cannot supply
laptops. Please bring your own laptop and appropriate adaptors
if you are going to use a digital projector. Please bring a backup
copy of your presentation on a disk-key or CD. Test everything.
certain projectors sometimes do not work with certain computers,
it is BAAM's very strong recommendation that you bring your own
tested projector and computer.
a.m. Reception Area (2nd Floor)
Registration (Open all day)
Note: Continental breakfast will be available in the Ballroom during
registration. Free for convention registrants.
Operations: The Current Approach
Michigan University, Emeritus)
BACB Type 2 CEUs
a.m. Ballroom A
BAAM is pleased to announce that its 2008 opening
Keynote Speaker will be Jack Michael, Professor Emeritus
of Western Michigan University
Michael's keynote address will describe the outcome of over two
decades of research and analysis on the topic traditional psychologists
might call "motivation." Dr. Micheal's work on "establishing
operations," later known as "movtivating operations,"
started with the 1982 publication of his seminal article "Distinguishing
Between Discriminative and Motivational Functions of Stimuli"
in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
and has continued until the present day.
Michael, PhD. Dr. Michael was born in 1926 in Los Angeles, and entered
UCLA in 1943 as a chemistry major. He served two years in the army,
and returned to UCLA in 1946, this time as a psychology major. He
obtained a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. at UCLA, finishing in 1955. As
a graduate student his main interests were statistical methodology,
physiological psychology, and learning theory. During his first
teaching job (Kansas University) he was much influenced by B. F.
Skinner's Science and Human Behavior, and since then has been primarily
involved in teaching behavioral psychology at Kansas U., the University
of Houston, Arizona State University, and since 1967 at Western
Michigan University. In 1957 as a result of influence by the rehabilitation
psychologist, Lee Meyerson, he began to apply Skinner's behavior
analysis to applications in the areas of mental retardation, mental
illness, and physical disability. During the next several years
"behavior modification" was in a period of rapid expansion
and Dr. Michael contributed with his teaching, writing, and public
presentations. Most recently he has been concerned with the technical
terminology of behavior analysis, basic theory regarding motivation,
and verbal behavior. Dr. Michael contributed to the founding of
the Association for Behavior Analysis in 1974 and served as its
president in 1979. Dr. Michael was Western Michigan University's
Distinguished Faculty Scholar for 1989. He received the 2002 Award
for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis from the Association
for Behavior Analysis, and the 2002 Don Hake Award from Division
25 of the American Psychological Association.
am Room 330
Symposium: Applications of Behavioral Technology Across Diverse
Chair: Sarah A. Lechago (Western Michigan
BACB Type 2 CEUs
studies from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Clinical Behavior
Research, and Behavioral Medicine laboratories at Western Michigan
College Students to Visually Inspect Single-case Design Data.
Candice M. Jostad & James E.
Carr (Western Michigan University)
is the primary method of data analysis used in behavior analysis.
Thus, it is important that members of our field have the skills necessary
for accurate visual inspection. Research has shown that visual inspection
is unreliable (e.g., DeProspero & Cohen, 1979), which has broad
implications for the evaluation of treatment effects using this method.
Traditional lectures have been shown to be ineffective in teaching
visual inspection skills to a satisfactory level (e.g., Stewart, Carr,
Brandt, & McHenry, in press). Improvements in visual inspection
have been accomplished using statistical methods and aids such as
lines superimposed on graphs (e.g., Fisher, Kelley, & Lomas, 2003;
Stewart et al., in press). However, these methods are not effective
when the aids are removed, and the aids typically are unavailable
when inspectors evaluate graphs in the natural setting (e.g., when
reading journal articles). The current study evaluated the effects
of a portable job-aid on the visual inspection skills of undergraduate
Reinforcement of Low Rates: Interval vs. Full-Session DRL.
Season M. Almason & R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
reinforcement of low rates (DRL) procedures are typically used in
applied settings to reduce behavior that is problematic only because
it is occurring at an unacceptably high rate. The DRL procedures that
are most frequently used in applied settings are full-session and
interval DRL. Researchers have used these DRL procedures to effectively
reduce unacceptably high rates of behavior for children with and without
developmental disabilities as well for adults with developmental disabilities.
However, there is no standard protocol for implementing these procedures
and many procedural variations have been found to be effective. Also,
these procedures have never been compared to see if one is more effective
than the other. The purpose of the present study is to compare full-session
and interval DRL schedules to determine which procedure is the most
effective in reducing high rates of behavior.
Hoarding in a Person with Dementia. Jonathan C. Baker, Linda A.
LeBlanc, Laura C. Hilton, & Paige B. Raetz (Western Michigan University)
Hoarding is a
problematic behavior sometimes seen in older adults with dementia.
Previous intervention studies (e.g., Goddaer & Abraham, 1994;
Schroepfer & Ingersoll-Dayton, 2001; Thomas, Heitman, & Alexander,
1997) have been met with limited success. The present study used a
preference assessment procedure to determine why hoarding might be
occurring (i.e., the function of hoarding) for an 80 year-old woman
with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The results of the assessment
were used to develop a function-based intervention using non-contingent
reinforcement (NCR). NCR was compared to a non-function based intervention
of blocking and redirection. NCR greatly reduced hoarding while blocking
and redirection resulted in a smaller reduction in hoarding. Implications
for designing positive environmental supports for older adults with
dementia are discussed.
am Room 352
Paper Session: Topics in Special Education
Chair: John Palladino (Eastern Michigan University)
Insights About The Behavioral Needs Of Youth In Foster Care: Findings
From a National Study. John
M. Palladino (Eastern Michigan University)
thousands of our nation's youth experience abuse and neglect severe
enough to warrant their placement into states' foster care systems.
The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS)
of the United States Department of Health and Human Services estimated
that 523,000 of the nation's youth were living in foster care
as of September 30, 2003 (United States Department of Health and
Human Services, 2005). The reasons for their entry into foster
care included experiences or potential risk for physical, sexual,
and/or emotional abuse, in addition to parental/caregiver neglect
and maltreatment. The amelioration of hardships that this population
endures requires a leadership response from all sectors of society
that interact with youth, school teachers included.
will include the findings from a survey administered to 1,000
teachers selected from 8 different states about their perceptions
about the educational wellbeing of youth in foster care. Findings
revealed teachers' significant concerns about the high incidences
of emotional-behavioral disorders prevalent among this population.
This presentation will include a discussion about the related
survey items that correlated with the teachers' concerns about
unmet behavioral needs among this population.
Out Or Fatigued?: What's the Real Cause of Special Education Teachers'
Exoduses From the Profession. John M. Palladino (Eastern Michigan
University ) & Shari Hoffman (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to
helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this study
was to use this theory to better understand the prevalent rates
of special education teachers' exit from the profession often
labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with preservice and inservice
special education teachers ensued. Findings support the need for
greater infusion of a compassion fatigue theoretical framework
within the academy and among K-12 practitioners. Implications
for professional development, preservice preparation, practice,
and additional research will be presented and discussed.
am Room 320
Using Portable Web-Enabled Devices for
Real-Time Data Recording: Things You Can Do. James T. Todd (Eastern
Michigan University) & Lisa M. Manthey (Wayne State University)
BACB Type 2 CEUs
effectiveness of behavioral interventions is often compromised by the
lack of timely and accurate information about behavior. Even when the
importance of good data is acknowledged, good data are not often found.
The data might be taken incorrectly, lost, not collected at all, recorded
"from memory" at the end of a shift, guessed at, and even just
made up. The new class of wireless Internet browsers-the iPod Touch, the
iPhone, BlackBerry PDAs, and web-enabled telephones-provides almost anyone
with some server space and an email account the capability of creating
simple and reliable online, real-time data recording applications that
can be run on web-enabled devices without proprietary software or costly
software licensing fees. This presentation provides an introduction to
the implementation of some of these simple server-based solutions for
real-time data recording.
- 1:20 pm--Lunch (on your own)
pm Room 330
Symposium: Utilizing Organizational Behavior Management and
Industrial and Organizational Psychology Measurement Methodologies to
Improve Customer Service 1.5
BACB Type 2 CEUs
Michael Kephart (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Carl Johnson (Central Michigan University)
field studies were conducted to measure and improve customer-service
behaviors using a combination of industrial and organizational (I/O)
psychology and organizational behavior management (OBM) techniques.
Service behaviors were measured via survey data collected from customers
and unobtrusively from observation data collected by trained observers/raters.
An intervention was implemented in each study to test the efficacy of
a service-behavior improvement package. Three different settings were
utilized in these studies which included: coffee shops, submarine sandwich
shops, and convenience stores. The survey data and observational data
were collected during baseline and after the implementation of the intervention.
The hypothesis that both methodologies could easily be completed simultaneously
was supported. The hypothesis that important information is obtained
using both methods was supported. Although both techniques provide some
overlapping information, data resulting from each method uniquely contributes
to the assessment. Using only one technique can result in the researcher/practitioner
having an incomplete evaluation.
Customer-Service Using a Multi-Method Approach in Submarine Sandwich
Shops. Michael Kephart, Carlos Gallusser , & Shannon Difranco
(Central Michigan University)
field study was conducted in submarine sandwich shops to evaluate
the feasibility of simultaneously using organizational behavior management
(OBM) and industrial and organizational psychology methodologies.
Customer service behaviors were measured via survey data collected
from customers and unobtrusively from observation data collected by
trained observers/raters. The survey data and observational data were
collected during a baseline phase and during and after an implementation
of an intervention developed to improve customer service behaviors.
The correlations between the two different measures ranged from small
to moderate for the different categories of customer service behaviors.
The fact that the data derived from the two methods are interrelated
supports the validity of each measure. However, the divergence between
the two data sets suggests that each methodology provides unique insight
into the relationship between customer service behaviors and customer
satisfaction. Using a combination of both methods allows for a more
comprehensive understanding of customer service in a given setting.
Relationship between Employee Customer Service Behaviors and Customer
Satisfaction Ratings. Amanda R. Rivard (Central
A field study
was conducted in various coffee shops using a multiple baseline design.
Specific customer opinion information was obtained using a satisfaction
survey. In addition, observations were made of related employee customer
service behaviors. The information derived from these two sources
was compared in order to determine the relationship between these
measures. The survey helped to pinpoint which aspects of customer
service are more important to customers by assessing satisfaction
with store cleanliness, employee friendliness, and latency. These
environmental and behavioral components were simultaneously observed
using trained observers. An intervention package was implemented to
increase employee customer service-related behaviors. Survey information
was then collected to determine if customer satisfaction increased
as a result of improved customer service. Results indicate that customer
satisfaction ratings may be somewhat independent of commonly evaluated
employee customer service-related behaviors.
a Performance Management System Involving Feedback and Intervention
with Industrial and Organizational Psychological Survey Data on College
Student-Staffed Convenience Stores.
Eric O'Rourke (Central Michigan University)
order to improve customer-service behaviors in college student-staffed
convenience stores, a field study was carried out using both industrial
and organizational (I/O) psychology and organizational behavior management
(OBM) practices. Measurements were recorded through inconspicuous
observations of service behaviors and interactions between customers
and employees I convenience of similar age. Feedback, including verbal
positive reinforcement from managers and tangible positive reinforcement
from the experimenter, was used as an intervention and was given to
employees based on subjective performance data gathered from managers
and objective performance data gathered from observers. Survey data
was collected from customers concerning service behaviors during the
intervention phase. Results from data collection and surveys show
improvement amongst the employees as a result of the intervention
in performance of service behaviors in both the OBM and I/O related
data. A trend was present in the results indicating a positive correlation
between performance of service behaviors and gender dissimilarity
between customers and employees.
pm Room 352
of a Christian Atheist. Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
of my high-IQ, smart-guy, hard-science buddies can't resist a diatribal
wallow in the reinforcers of righteous indignation, as they proclaim that
religion is the root of all evil and enthusiastically cite the mean-spirited
Sam Harris' The End of Faith as scientific proof. But I, as a Christian
atheist, humbly and quietly suggest that religion may be the only thing
standing between us and dog-eat-dog social chaos. Theologians have struggled
for millennia in their futile effort to reconcile the reality of bad things
happening to good people with the belief in a loving, just, omnipotent
god. But I, as a Christian atheist, humbly and quietly suggest they suck
it up and learn to love paradox. The new pope shocks the world by saying
all religions are equal but Catholicism is more equal than others. And
I, as a Christian atheist, say ecumenism was still born, long live ecumenism.
pm Room 320
"Girls Gone Bad:" A Behavioral
Analysis of Selected American Films about Female Adolescents, 1997-2007.
Mark Giesler (Saginaw Valley State University)
America media coverage has suggested increasing violence among girls.
Violent crimes committed by women, for example, have increased by 138%
since 1970 (Geringer, 2003).
the same time, researchers have distinguished female acts of violence
from male-oriented ones. Underwood (2003) stated that relational or social
aggression, whereby girls manipulate social relationships, may be a distinguishing
facet of female violence.
coincidentally, the image of the "bad girl" has made a stronger
appearance in American media in recent years. Acland (1995) proposed that
in most films about contentious youth, society is the cause of delinquency.
Films produced pre-2000 have depicted the ailing nuclear family, the spoils
of middle- or upper-class life, or even (as in The Omen) demonic possession
by an outside force as explanations for the "bad" in the "bad
present study explores the shift in perspective that more recent films
about teenage girls have demonstrated: "bad" is behavioral-based,
rather than society-produced; it reflects an internal rather than external
locus of control. Using the DSM-IV-TR as a tool for analysis, the study
examines the portrayal of "bad girls" in 8 films released in
American theatres in the past decade.
study asks and answers relevant questions: what form does "bad"
take on film from a behavioral perspective? How does it reflect and contradict
the current research about the behavior of female adolescents? If film
shapes values and norms as much as reflects them, what are the implications
of such a shift for the teenage girls who watch?
pm Room 352
A Developmental Center Case Analysis: Success
and Failures of Behavior Analysis. Neil Duchac (Capella University)
brief paper will address a case study of a 31 year old male residing at
a developmental center diagnosed with Autism and moderate mental retardation.
Over the course of the past six months there has been a severe increase
in aggression and an overall decline in functioning. This individual has
undergone multiple medication changes and has seemed psychotropic resistant
with the exception of past neuroleptic usage. Different aspects of Behavior
Analysis has been tried, but with limited success. This participatory
presentation will allow participants the opportunity to openly discuss
this case, possible future interventions, and to discuss both the successes
and failures of past Behavioral Analysis treatment.
pm Room 320
Using the PDC and Performance Matrix to Improve
Employee Perfromance in a Non-Profit Organization. Season M. Almason,
Heather M. McGee, & Jessica L. Fouch (Western Michigan University)
study employed a BAB design to evaluate the effects of an intervention
package on employee performance in a non-profit organization. Four behaviors
were targeted for a total of 30 employees, 20 of whom were high school
students. The intervention package evaluated in this study included goal
setting, individual written feedback, group graphic feedback, and reinforcement
(raffle for individual prizes and a group pizza party). The Performance
Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) was used to determine the components of the
intervention package and the Performance Matrix was used to provide a
quantitative measure of employee behavior as well as individual written
feedback. The study occurred over a period of approximately 6 weeks and
the intervention was applied and evaluated across 7 sites. In all cases
the target behaviors occurred more often during the intervention phases
than during the baseline phase. Pilot data showed that employees were
engaging in the target behaviors about 50% of the time (i.e., they would
have earned 50% of the possible points on the Performance Matrix). The
overall percentage of points earned in the first intervention phase was
89.9%. It decreased to 67.7% in baseline and then increased to 79.2% when
the intervention was reinstated.
pm Room 330
An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management
Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management.
Nicholas L Weatherly & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1993, 1999)
was used to analyze organizational interventions in the Journal of Organizational
Behavior Management (JOBM) from the years 1990 through 2005 [Volume 11(1)
- Volume 25(4)]. Given the importance of rule-governance in the analogue
contingencies seen in most performance-management interventions, we only
included studies that targeted the performance of normal-functioning verbal
adults. And we excluded studies that solely evaluated training programs,
program evaluation studies, and studies that took place in simulated settings.
Each intervention component from the articles that met the criteria for
inclusion was identified and analyzed. All forty-eight studies that met
the criteria for inclusion in the current paper involved indirect-acting
contingencies (outcomes are too delayed to reinforce the causal response),
though only twenty-four of the forty-eight articles described the performance-management
contingencies. Of these twenty-four articles, seventeen articles incorrectly
described the performance-management contingencies, describing them as
if they were the simple sort of direct-acting reinforcement contingencies
used with non-verbal animals in the Skinner box, even though the delay
between the behavior and the reinforcer always seemed too great to directly
reinforce that behavior. In addition to generally reviewing the performance-management
contingencies described in all forty-eight articles, we also conducted
detailed analyses of the contingencies described in three representative
articles. We conclude by discussing the importance of conceptual precision
in describing behavioral contingencies.
pm Room 320
Special Showing: PBS Frontline--Prisoners of
March 14, 2008
am Reception Area (2nd Floor)
Registration (Open all day)
Note: Continental breakfast will be available in the Ballroom during registration.
Free for convention registrants.
am Ballroom B
Litigation, and the Expert Psychological Witness: Implications and Lessons
For Psychologists, Treatment Professionals, and Academics on the Stand
James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
ongoing facilitated communication case in Oakland County reminds us
that any treatment professional might be needed on the witness stand
for a variety of reasons. The professional might be an expert, or even
a plantiff or defendant. Few academic programs offer any training at
all in what goes on the courtroom. Few people who do not have extensive
experience in the legal profession will understand the peculiar and
seemingly counterintuitive procedures and decisions that can arise from
ordinary court operation. What might seen like a straightforward and
obvious course of action in a treatment setting or academic environment
can become exceedingly complex when court rules and traditions are applied.
Because some court procedures and concepts can derive from common law
traditions dating back hundreds of years, modern scientific concepts,
which everyone might ordinarily agree are highly important to the matter
at hand, can be entirely irrelevant from a legal standpoint.Things an
academic sees as obvious can quickly become obscure in the courtroom.
Standard terms get new and unfamiliar meanings. In the current case
in Oakland, for instance, we find "facilitated communication,"
what has many characteristics of a treatment, and has been rejected
by almost every other court as valid, defined for these court purposes
as a type of interpretation or translation--and thus protected from
a general scientific evaluation of effectiveness or utility.
speech pathologists, social workers, and even front-line staff, especially
those who work in schools and treatment centers, can find themselves
testifying about their clients, their treatments, or even their own
conduct. Often they are just called upon to give some ordinary background
information. Sometimes, however, they can find themselves testifying
under adversarial circumstances, occasionally with legal exposure themselves.
Some might be asked to serve as experts, with special responsibilities
for specific forms of information. Judge Tyner will provide some background
on court matters, with recent cases as guidance, to help the treatment
professional understand the court experience in its many forms. The
presentation will be followed by a moderated Q and A period.
Deborah Tyner was elected to the Oakland County Circuit Court in 1990.
She served as a Judge from 1991-2006. She is presently in private practice
with an emphasis on facilitating cases. Judge Tyner is a member of the
State Bar of Michigan, Oakland County Bar Association, Women Lawyers
Association, and a Fellow of the Michigan State Bar Foundation and the
Oakland County Adams Pratt Foundation.
Tyner serves on the Advisory Board of Directors of Kadima. She is a
Jewish Women’s Foundation Trustee and recently elected to serve
on the Board of Directors for Jewish Family Service. She also serves
on the Community Advisory Board of Circle of Life, a psychiatric hospital.
She is a former Trustee of the Michigan Chapter of the National Multiple
Sclerosis Society. Judge Tyner is the recipient of various awards, by
way of example: the Greater Grace Temple “Award of Gratitude”,
the Oakland County Service Award, the State of Israel Bonds Attorney
Division “Eleanor Roosevelt Humanities Award”, the Jewish
War Veterans “Brotherhood Award” and the B’nai B’rith
Tyner graduated with a BA with High Distinction from the University
of Michigan 1977 with a major in History and a secondary teaching certificate.
She graduated Cum Laude from Wayne State University Law School.
Biology, and Behavior Analysis. Paul Thomas Andronis (Northern
BACB Type 2 CEUs
discussions of autism, in nearly all areas of behavioral science,
begin with something like the following statement: "Of course,
autism is a biological disorder" The "course" is
a logical one, the remainder is vacuous. All behavior is, of course,
biological. The hidden agenda here is not so hidden, nor is it
really part of the formal agenda of behavior analysis. The ellipse
at the end of the statement above lops off another equally familiar
(and perhaps more important) part of the quote: "Although,
to date, no clear biological cause had been identified."
This paper will examine the role biology might play in understanding
autism--particularly in its development, its symptomatology, and
its eventual conquest--and will present brief review of the major
biological hypotheses on the origins of autism, their implications,
and what evidence might exist to support or refute these hypotheses.
The discussion will include an explicit consideration of the role
behavior analysis can play in the search for a biological explanation
of autism, and implications for treatment and prevention.
am Room 301
Topics in Multisystemic Therapy
Chair: Lisa M. Manthey (Wayne State University)
Therapy (MST) is an intensive home-based behavioral therapy originally
developed for the treatment of antisocial youth. It has
been expanded to deal with issue of medical compliance and other
problems. This symposium will illustrate some of the applications
of multisystemic therapy in a behavioral medicine context.
Therapy in a Pediatric Psychology Context. Lisa M. Manthey,
Andrea D. Motley, & Deborah A. Ellis (Wayne State University)
Therapy (MST) is an intensive home-based behavioral therapy
originally developed for the treatment of antisocial youth.
The focus on resolving non-compliant behaviors at a systems
level is applicable to non-adherence to medical regimens. MST
has recently been adapted to treat adolescents with poorly controlled
chronic medical conditions and has shown promising results.
In this presentation, the underlying theories, guiding principles,
models of service delivery, and applications of MST will be
Motivational Interviewing Techniques into Multisystemic Therapy:
Treating Non-Adherent Health Behaviors in Chronically Ill Adolescents.
Michelle McGarrity (Wayne State University School of Medicine)
Motivational Interviewing Techniques into Multisystemic Therapy:
Treating Non-Adherent Health Behaviors in Chronically Ill Adolescents
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive, client centered
counseling style designed to explore and resolve ambivalence
while eliciting behavior change. Multisystemic Therapy (MST)
treats anti-social behaviors in youth by utilizing an intensive,
cognitive-behavioral focused, in home, family centered approach
to therapy. The MST approach is clinically integrative and incorporates
many evidence based methods including behavioral and cognitive-behavioral
techniques. This presentation illustrates how Motivational Interviewing
can help to address barriers to behavior change and enhance
MST treatment of non-adherent, chronically ill adolescents.
The principals, components, interaction techniques, applications
and spirit of Motivational Interviewing in an MST context will
Case Study of the Effect of Multisystemic Therapy on HIV
Medication Adherence. Andrea D. Motley, Lisa M. Manthey,
Deborah A. Ellis (Wayne State University)
HIV viral loads in a 13 year old female were successfully reduced from
100,000 to an undetectable level over a 3 month period using
Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Intensive home-based behavioral
treatment targeted health care behaviors at family and community
levels. The interventions included skills development
in parental monitoring, communication, assertiveness, and
management of medication adherence. Maintenance of treatment
gains is unknown at this time as the case is still open.
The importance of addressing health care behaviors across
multiple systems is emphasized as an important component of
Social Workers + Special Education Teachers = Collaborative
Engagement: Does This Equation Exist In Michigan? Mark
Giesler (Saginaw Valley State University) & John Palladino
(Eastern Michigan University)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
(2004) mandated that schools collaborate with families for
the identification, implementation, and evaluation of integrated
services for students with disabilities. The Act's prior authorizations
and revisions (1997 & 1999) identified school social workers
(SSWs) as qualified individuals for the provision of such
services. As such, SSWs are called to inter-collaboration
with families that accounts for families' emotional support,
techniques to engage family-to-family support, and awareness
of cultural diversity within the service delivery domain.
This multiple case study explored collaborative barriers related
to these goals identified by eight Michigan school social
workers assigned to special education populations. Implications
for the academy, research, and practice will constitute this
am Room 320
Simulation-Based Training to Improve Health Care Team Skills and
Reduce Medical Errors 1.5
BACB Type 2 CEUs
Chair: Wayne Fuqua
Behavior Analytic Principles in the Design and Application
of Simulation-based Assessment and Training.
Amy Gross & Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
Behavior analysis researchers have used a range of simulations
including those with low fidelity to those with very high
fidelity. In this context, “fidelity”
refers to the correspondence between the critical stimulus
features of the “real world” situation in which
a target behavior occurs and the corresponding features
of the simulation. Examples at the lower end of the fidelity
continuum include, actor-based role plays used to assess
and train social skills, to polymer breast models that approximate
the density of human breast tissue and the size and location
of embedded lumps used to train breast self-exam skills.
Simulations have long been used in behavior analysis research
to a) assess behavior, b) to train behavior and c) to identify
causal variables for a problem behavior. We then discussed
the application of behavior analysis principles to the design
of high fidelity simulations for research, assessment and
training purposes. We suggest that the design
of high fidelity simulations can be guided by consideration
of contextual, physiological and historical variables that
have been identified by learning theory and behavior analysis
researchers as important determinants of behavior. We identified
and gave examples of a range of variables that should be
considered in designing high fidelity simulations including:
the stimulus events that define a response opportunity,
more distal setting events, historical events, emotional
and physiological variables, distracting events that control
competing behavior, and the naturalistic and programmed
consequences (e. g., reinforcers and punishers) for behavior
being sampled in the simulation. We also discussed
the range of response dimensions that might be considered
in efforts to obtain an accurate assessment of a behavior,
including response topography, magnitude, frequency, latency,
sequence and duration. We then reviewed factors that influence
generalization and maintenance for simulation based training.
Finally, we discussed strategies to assess social validity,
or consumer satisfaction with simulation based assessment
Training and Assessing Team Skills: A Review and
Synopsis of the Empirical Literature. Krystyna
Orizondo-Korotko, Amy Gullickson, Shannon Loewy
& Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan University)
This presentation identified a range of team skills and
discussed strategies for the assessment and training of
skills that are related to health care safety issues.
There are different ways that teams are formed, and in order
to determine which team skills are necessary, it is first
essential to identify the various models of team organization
and functioning. Among the variables that merit consideration
are whether teams are intact and stable or fluid, whether
teams are organized around a flat vs. hierarchical structure,
and finally the extent to which team members have common
skills or unique, not overlapping skill sets. Observation
of team performance in health care settings reveals that
most hospital based health care teams have a fluid structure
(the membership of the team varies across time), with some
hierarchical elements (one or more designated or implicit
leaders) and specialized skill sets for each team member.
Knowing the most common team structure in health care, we
were then able to determine what skill sets (called domains)
were most relevant to effective team performance. An important
prerequisite to implementing any team skill training intervention
is developing an adequate assessment procedure, collecting
baseline performance data and identifying the team skills
that characterize exemplary team performance (and presumably
improve the health care outcomes produced by a given team).
We then described the manner in which a matrix of team skills
was developed, refined and validated for this particular
project. Finally, we previewed the three different
methods of training team skills that will be tested in this
project: (1) information based, including role clarification,
(2) demonstration based, and (3) practice and feedback based.
Different tools will also be used during training: classroom
instruction, the use of simulations, and the post-simulation
In Situ Simulation: Assessing and Training
Clinical Operations in Health Care Settings. Wayne
Fuqua, William Hamman, Jeff Beaubien, Amy Gullickson, Rick
Lammers, William Rutherford, & Beth Seiler (Western
Errors in the delivery of health care services are estimated
to account for 90,000 deaths per year in the United States.
Many of these deaths are traceable to failures in team coordination
and communication among health care workers. Other
high risk industries, such as aviation, have greatly reduced
error rates through comprehensive simulation based skill
assessment and training programs. We suggest that
many of the simulation based training and quality control
strategies developed in aviation can be extrapolated to
health care, if, and only if, a number of modifications
are made to reflect unique aspects of health care (non-standardized
work environments, rotating team composition, poorly delineated
roles and chains of command, absence of systematic training
in key skills). We describe the preliminary stages
of the development of a simulation-based assessment and
training system for heath care workers, known as “In-situ
simulation.” The features of this model include
the development of scenarios composed of a number of event
sets designed to challenge critical health care skills (e.g.,
problem solving, team coordination, error detection and
correction). Simulations are orchestrated in the health
care setting in an effort to increase the fidelity of the
surrounding environment and to sample the real-world interface
between health care workers and support services (e.g.,
lab and blood services). We describe the development and
validation of a taxonomy of health care skills that can
be used to evaluate the performance of health care teams.
We also describe a facilitated debriefing strategy that
is used to promote self evaluation of critical communication,
problem solving and error detection skills by health care
workers who have completed an in-situ simulation.
Complex Behavioral Processes with Clinically Relevant Populations.
Chair: Laura L. Grow (Western Michigan University) 1.5
BACB Type 2 CEUs
studies from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Clinical
Behavior Research, and Behavioral Medicine laboratories at Western
for Information Generalize Across Establishing Operations.
Sarah A. Lechago, James E. Carr, Laura L. Grow, Jessa
R. Love, & Season M. Almason (Western Michigan University)
study sought to extend the developing literature on teaching
mands for information by systematically assessing whether
they generalize across different establishing operations
(EOs). Three children with autism were taught to perform
multiple behavior chains, three of which included a common
response topography (e.g., "Where is the spoon?")
used for different purposes. An interrupted-behavior-chain
procedure was used to contrive the EO for each mand. After
a mand for information was taught under one EO, the remaining
chains were interrupted to determine whether the mand
had generalized across EOs. For all three participants,
mands for information generalized across EOs. For one
participants, a new mand for information topography emerged
after training. The results are analyzed according to
Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior.
of Equivalence Classes by Older Adults.
Brian J. Feeney, Linda A. Leblanc, & Tracy Lepper (Western
classes consist of arbitrary stimuli that come to share functional
and symbolic relations partially through contingencies and
partially as a product of emergent processes. Three studies
have begun to document the differences between older and younger
adults in the formation of equivalence classes. The purpose
of this study is to clarify methodological factors that may
account for or contribute to the differences reported in the
literature. Forty adults ages 60 and older were exposed to
two matching-to-sample training procedures and subsequent
testing using a personal computer with a touch screen and
a 0-s delay. Half of the participants experienced a many to
one (MTO) training procedure followed by a one to many (OTM)
procedure and the other half experienced the reverse order.
Differences in trials to criterion, errors during training,
emergent relations were minimal between the two conditions,
replicating the effects of Saunders et al findings with 0-s
delay. The majority of elders demonstrated the expected emergent
relations with clear differences in training performance patterns
for those who subsequently performed well on tests and those
who performed more poorly.
to Positive and Negative Stimuli and Formation of Equivalence
Classes in Depressed and Non-Depressed Individuals. Sheryl
Lozowski-Sullivan & R. Wayne Fuqua (Western Michigan
theory of depression focuses on the role of thought and language
as contributing factors to the development and maintenance
of depressive symptomatology. More specifically, equivalence
class formation is a hypothesized mechanism in which depressed
individuals develop a pervasively negative view of self, their
world and their future. In an effort to test this hypothesized
mechanism, the current study examined the formation of stimulus
equivalence class formation for stimuli involving positively
valenced (e.g., "worthy"), negatively valenced (e.g.,
"deficient") and neutrally valenced (e.g., "angled")
verbal stimuli. The goal was to assess differences between
depressed and non-depressed groups in the development of positively,
neutrally and negatively valanced stimulus classes. Participants
were screened for depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression
Inventory-II, and 28 individuals with high scores (i.e., depressed)
and 27 individuals with low scores (i.e., asymptomatic) participated
in a matching to sample task involving the three contrasting
stimulus classes. All participants formed equivalence classes
with all categories of stimuli equally well and transitive
and symmetrical relations emerged for the majority of participants.
This suggests that stimulus equivalence class formation with
negative stimuli is not a primary mechanism by which depressive
symptoms are developed or maintained. When the emergent relations
were evident, depressed individuals were more likely to include
the stimulus "myself" in the neutral class than
the positive class while asymptomatic individuals were more
likely to include "myself" in the positive class.
A subset of participant's reports indicated that the neutral
class was selected because it includes both positive and negative
aspects. The current results further previous findings suggesting
symptomatic individuals hold a non-positive pre-experimental
learning history for "myself" by demonstrating a
preference for the neutrally valenced equivalence class when
offered positive, negative and neutral options for "myself."
am Room 300
Teaching Social Behavior to Children with Autism: Analysis,
Assessment, and Intervention. Mark L. Sundberg (Sundberg
and Associates, Concord, CA) 1.0
BACB Type 2 CEUs
This presentation will suggest that human social behavior involves
a complex interaction between people that involves at least three
separate but interacting behavioral repertoires: 1) verbal repertoires
(mands, tacts, intraverbals, etc.), nonverbal repertoires (proximity,
touching, hygiene, etc.), and listener repertoires (eye contact,
mediating reinforcement, functioning as a discriminative stimulus,
etc.). Many people have difficulty engaging in social interaction
with others due to the multiple variables involved. Children with
autism seem to have an especially difficult time acquiring appropriate
social behavior. An analysis of why it is difficult for children
on the autism spectrum will be provided, along with an assessment
system (The VB-MAPP), and suggestions for intervention along with
am Room 301
Intervention Research in Your Own Backyard. Julie McCormick
& Jennifer Tjernagel (University of Michigan Autism &
Communication Disorders Center)
presentation will provide an overview of an intensive, early intervention
study that that will be conducted through the University of Michigan
Autism and Communication Disorders Center (UMACC). Researchers
at the UMACC, the University of California-Davis and the University
of Washington have been awarded a $15.3 million grant to determine
the impact of intervening with toddlers age 2 and younger as part
of the NIH Autism Centers of Excellence Networks. The five-year
study is a multi-site, randomized trial funded by the National
Institutes of Health to determine if such efforts can reduce the
language impairments and social deficits associated with the developmental
disorder. Researchers also hope to determine the behavioral factors
that help predict whether a child will respond well to this early
treatment. The intervention to be tested, the Early Start Denver
Model, fuses developmental and relationship-based intervention
techniques with applied behavior analysis teaching strategies.
This presentation will also describe other research being conducted
at UMACC, including a second early intervention project and a
large genetics study. The Early Social Interaction Project is
a University of Michigan/Florida State University collaboration
that is comparing the effectiveness of two parent-implemented
interventions in building social communication skills in toddlers
with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The Simons Simplex Collection,
coordinated out of the University of Michigan, is collecting information
from families at 13 universities across the nation, and will establish
a vast repository of genetic and phenotypic data for use by researchers
around the world. It focuses on families with just one child with
autism, called simplex families, which will provide insight into
the most common and unexplained form of autism. The wide variety
of research projects being conducted at University of Michigan
provides an opportunity to examine the risk factors, diagnosis,
treatment and prognosis for those with diagnosed with ASD.
am Room 320
Helplessness Vs. Acceptance: Applying Emergent Learning Priciples
To Complex Clinical Cases. Laszlo Erdodi (Eastern Michigan
theories evolve, basic concepts take on new meanings and are
applied to areas that were not covered by the initial definitions.
Through this process significant shifts may occur that can
result in paradoxes that seem distrurbing inconsistencies or
productive inventions depending on how they are perceived and
used. The relationship between learned helplessness and acceptance
is explored within the dynamic interaction of behavioral theory
with clinical practice.
- 12:50 pm--Lunch (on your own)
Behaviorism as Science Itself in the History of Western Civilization.
Dennis J. Delprato (Eastern Michigan University) 1.0
BACB Type 2 CEUs
the relationships between the development of psychological behaviorism
and parallels in the history of Western Civilization.
pm Room 301
in Developmental Disability and Aging
Chair: Candice M. Jostad (Western Michigan
BACB Type 2 CEUs
review and experimental data from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities
and Clinical Behavior Research Laboratories at Western Michigan
Reinforcement as Treatment for Problem Behavior: A Quantitative
Review. Jamie M. Severtson, James E. Carr, & Tracy L.
Lepper (Western Michigan University)
reinforcement (NCR) is a function-based treatment for problem behavior
that has produced robust effects across a variety of response topographies,
reinforcement functions, and populations.
Several narrative literature reviews have adequately described the
NCR treatment literature. The purpose of this presentation is to
quantitatively analyze and classify the empirical support for NCR
using the criteria developed by The Task Force on the Promotion
and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1995). Of the 59
studies identified for analysis, 24 met the criteria to be included
in treatment classification. Based on the Task Force guidelines,
fixed-time reinforcer delivery (plus extinction and schedule thinning)
was classified as well established, while fixed-time reinforcer
delivery (plus extinction) and variable-time reinforcer delivery
(plus extinction) were deemed probably efficacious.
of the Eden Model on Engagement and Affect of Elders with Dementia.
Allison A. Jay, Linda A. LeBlanc, R. Mark Mathews (University of
Sydney), & Jonathan C. Baker (Western Michigan University)
Eden Model of care has become a widely adopted approach to designing
special care units for elders with dementia, in spite of relatively
little empirical support for the specific effects of the model.
The model involves incorporation of homelike environments, pets,
and specialized staff training into the structural and organizational
design of long-term care settings. Data are obtained from three
years of direct observation behavior mapping that focuses on resident
engagement and affect, and staff-resident interactions in an Eden
model special care unit. Engagement and affect are examined in relation
to proximity and use of Eden model features.
Spectrum Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective. Andrew R. Riley,
Linda A. LeBlanc, & Tina R. Goldsmith (Western Michigan University)
As more individuals
with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) enter into adolescence and
adulthood the importance of considering lifespan issues for these
individuals has increased. Practices such as transition planning
during secondary education, supports for independent community living
and employment and higher education supports have become common.
The 2007 proposed Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation
Facilities (CARF) Autism standards also reflect the importance of
lifespan issues by focusing approximately half of the standards
on the degree to which relevant transition and long term life planning
is conducted for individual consumers. This presentation seeks to
highlight the importance of the lifespan approach to ASDs and to
provide a review of problems and supports provided at critical times
in the lifespan. An introduction to lifespan developmental theories
is followed by a review of outcomes evidence and exploration of
commonly encountered concerns and successes in key developmental
periods. As early childhood has been the subject of many comprehensive
reviews and texts this presentation will focus on critical developmental
periods that have been examined less frequently: adolescence, young
adulthood and adulthood.
and Treating Childhood Problems: Evaluating School-Based Interventions
For Anger And Reading and Characterizing the Experiences of
Parents of Children With an Autism Spectrum Diagnosis.
Chair: Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan University) 1.5
BACB Type 2 CEUs
significant proportion of children struggling with educational
and emotional problems do not receive developmentally appropriate
and empirically tested interventions. This is especially true
for children who come from families with limited financial means
or who live in high poverty communities where needed services
may not be readily available, affordable, or accessible. The
first two talks in this symposium describe attempts to target
these youth and evaluate the efficacy of the interventions provided
to them at their school. In the first talk, Cotter, Dillon,
and Gaynor will describe the results of a small randomized clinical
trial comparing a group cognitive-behavioral intervention (The
Anger Coping Program) to a commercially available group activity
set for reducing angry/aggressive behavior in elementary school
students. In the second talk, Arvans, Steinert-Otto, and Gaynor
will present data on the efficacy of a fluency-based reading
intervention, compared to a wait-list control condition, for
elementary school students struggling with reading. Childhood
problems influence and are influenced by the context in which
they occur. This may be especially true when a child engages
in the behavior patterns typical of autism, which pose a multitude
of extra challenges for parents. The final talk in the symposium
presents data on the impact of parenting a child with an autism
diagnosis has on the marital relationship between the child's
parents. The analyses focus on the relationships between child
symptom severity, parent stress level, marital satisfaction,
and marital status.
Treatment of Anger: A Comparison of the Anger Coping Program
and the Anger Solutions Collection. David D. Cotter, Courtney M. Dillon, & Scott T.
Gaynor (Western Michigan University)
examined two approaches to school-based anger management,
using a randomized between-groups design. One intervention,
the Anger Coping Program (ACP; Larson & Lochman, 2002),
is a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment that has
some empirical support, having been found to outperform
waitlist and minimal control conditions in several studies.
The comparison condition involves provision of a collection
of commercially marketed games/activities -- the Anger Solutions
Collection (ASC). The ASC condition included a board game,
card game, and a workbook of activities. Both interventions
were provided to groups of 4-8 same gender students using
two therapists per group. Session length was 45 minutes
and sessions were held twice weekly for 9 weeks. Currently
2 groups of boys (1 receiving ACP and 1 ASC) have completed
treatment. Two groups comprised of girls will complete treatment
by the end of January 08. Primary dependent measures include
child self-reported anger, parent and teacher ratings of
behavior, and changes in the number and type of office referrals
for poor conduct taken from the school's computerized database.
When complete, this data will constitute a rigorous evaluation
of ACP, assessing whether it appears to outperform another
active intervention that includes the same amount of contact
with participants and is also focused on anger.
Reading Fluency and Comprehension: A Comparison of Read
Naturally to Education as Usual. Rebecca Arvans (Western Michigan University), Patricia Steinert-Otto (Portage
Public Schools), & Scott T. Gaynor (Western Michigan
learning how to read is not only an educational problem, but
is also a risk factor for current and long-term behavior problems.
This is especially troubling because reading difficulties are
common, afflicting anywhere from 20-40% of elementary school
students. Read Naturally is a fluency-based computer program
designed to increase reading abilities and overall reading comprehension.
The current study assesses the efficacy of daily 30-45 minute
sessions of Read Naturally provided over a two-month period
compared to an Education as Usual control condition. Twenty
elementary students will receive Read Naturally while twenty
matched peers will receive Education as Usual. Currently 28
children are enrolled at some point in the protocol. Weekly
repeated measures and global pre-post standardized measures
of reading are the main dependent variables. Teacher ratings
of classroom behavior problems will also be gathered. The results
will provide information about the efficacy of Read Naturally
for increasing reading abilities in elementary students and
whether improving reading skills results in a decrease in behavior
problems at school.
Impact of a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder on Marital
Relationships in Intact and Divorced Couples. Sarah VerLee, Linda LeBlanc, & Galen J. Alessi
(Western Michigan University)
studies provide support for the notion that parents of children
with autism experience greater levels of stress than parents
of typically developing children and children with other
disabilities. In addition to increased stress levels, having
a child with autism may also lead to negative impacts on
marital adjustment, but only a few studies have examined
this impact. Previous studies have sampled intact marital
dyads resulting in a lack of information regarding the impact
of a child with autism on divorced parents and the degree
to which stress related to parenting a child with autism
may have contributed to the decision to divorce. This study
used a Internet-based questionnaire, completed by parents
of a child with an autism spectrum diagnosis, to examine
the effects of having a child with an autism spectrum disorder
on marital relationships and the role of having a child
with an autism disorder in parents' decisions to remain
in their marriages or pursue divorce.
pm Room 320
B.F. Skinner and the Lone Scouts: An Early Article Rediscovered,
and Some Corrections to the Historical Record. James T. Todd
(Eastern Michigan University)
Skinner was a member of a little-known branch of the Boy Scouts
of America, the "Lone Scouts." Lone Scouts were boys
who lived in areas where the population was too small to support
a troop, or where leadership was lacking. The Lone Scouts provided
boys with a variety of opportunities for civic and self-improvement
activities, including the option to contribute items for publication
in the "Lone Scout Journal." One of these items is reasonably
well known, a poem called "That Pessimistic Fellow,"
reproduced by Skinner in the first volume of his autobiography.
A search through the Lone Scout records at the "Lone Scout
Memory Lodge" reveals a second published item by Skinner
in the Lone Scout Journal, "On Putting Steel in Ink,"
which may be his second publication. Further investigation reveals
that Skinner erred in dating the appearance of "That Pessimistic
Fellow" several years before its actual publication due to
misinterpreting a numerical annotation on the poem as his age
when it was actually part of a point system used by the Lone Scouts
to motivate and reinforce contributions to the Lone Scout Journal.
to Get Into Graduate School 2:30-3:20 pm Room 301
Chair: Tamina A. Stuber (Western Michigan
guidance, and hints about getting into graduate school. Will cover
GRE, letters of recommendation, statement of purpose, selecting
a school, masters versus doctorate, Psy.D. versus Ph.D., how many
schools to apply to, meeting dates and deadlines, interviewing,
and many more topics. Will include question and answer period.
pm Room 330
BAAM Annual Job and Practicum Fair
Chairs: Heather M. Anson & Jennifer Delany Kowalkowski (Eastern
annual Job and Practicum Fair will feature presentations by local
and regional organizations and agencies that hire behavior analysts
and sponsor practicum opportunities. Following the formal presentations,
job seekers may meet with representatives of the agencies and organizations.
Session and Social
14, 4:00 pm
Autism Practicum. Abigail K. Ferree, Nicole J. Hoffmeister,
Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Advanced Autism Practicum is the last in a set of three practica
with the goal of training undergraduate student technicians to administer
Discrete-Trial Therapy to preschool-aged children with autism. Students
who show exemplary skills after completing the Basic and Intermediate
Autism Practica are considered for the Advanced Autism Practicum.
Our practicum site is an Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool
classroom. In addition to gaining experience with this population,
the Advanced Autism Practicum students write an original procedure
to be implemented with the children they work with. These student
technicians must detect specific skill deficits, write a procedure
to address the problem, interpret the data, and write any recycle
phases to make the procedure as effective as possible. The student
technician is also in charge of writing sub-phases to aid in a procedure
for which the child is having trouble meeting criteria for mastery
of a certain phase. Additionally, the student technician gives feedback
to Intermediate practicum students to assist in these students'
development as technicians. Lastly, as a part of the Advanced Autism
Practicum, student technicians are trained in the analysis of the
children's self-injurious or problem behavior. This includes introductions
to functional assessments and taking observational data.
Pre-Practicum. Kelly M. Hanlon, Blake E. Grider, M. Scott Spears,
& Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Autism Pre-Practicum is a subsystem of the Behavior Analysis Training
System (BATS) which is a system in Western Michigan University's
Psychology Department. The purpose of the Autism Pre-Practicum is
to develop a basic discrete-trial training repertoire in undergraduate
and graduate students prior to their entrance into the Croyden Avenue
School Practicum. Students in the Croyden Practicum work one-on-one
with a child in a pre-primary impaired (PPI) classroom implementing
discrete trials. All students within BATS must participate in the
Croyden Practicum. Undergraduate psychology students at Western
Michigan University may opt to take the Croyden Practicum to fulfill
their practicum requirement. The Autism Pre-Practicum is a pre-requisite
for the Croyden Avenue School Practicum. For graduate students,
training occurs during their first summer in BATS. For undergraduate
students, training typically occurs the semester before they enter
the Croyden Practicum. The Pre-Practicum focuses on training in
implementation of discrete trials but covers all rules and policies
of the PPI classroom at Croyden and the roles and responsibilities
of each student. Training includes lectures, articles, video instruction,
video modeling, live modeling, and role play with feedback. Role
play with feedback is the main emphasis of the training. Point contingencies
are in place for attendance and participation, assignments, and
visiting the PPI classroom during the Pre-Practicum. At the end
of the semester students receive a grade that is worth one credit
on their transcripts.
Analysis in Public Schools: Results of Preservice Special Educators
and Behavior Intervention Plans. Karen J. Carney (Eastern Michigan
management strategies are vital in our public schools. EMU preservice
special educators will results of informal functional behavior analyses
and behavior intervention plans done to support students in SE Michigan.
Analysis Training System. Caitlin O'Boyle, Krista Gabriau, Tara
Casady, Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
mission of the Behavior Analysis Training System is to facilitate
the improvement of the quality, accuracy, and timeliness of the
overall system. This is accomplished by improving performance within
and across all subsystems. Improved performance will be obtained
through increasing system accomplishments, minimizing the number
of and responding in a timely manner to disconnects, and improving
the quality and accuracy of system products.The BATS manager is
responsible for overseeing the entire Behavior Analysis Training
System Graduate Program in Applied Behavior Analysis at Western
Michigan University. The BATS system places point contingencies
on the graduate students in BATS through participation, lifetime
memory quizzes, assignements, etc. The BATS manager is responsible
for the ongoing Alumni database, recruitment poster, templates,
Systems Analysis Project. Elizabeth Saur, Allison Greening,
Nanette LaForest, Rachael Lowe, Richard Malott (Western Michigan
Behavior Systems Analysis Project (BSAP) is an optional component
course to PSY4600, Survey of Behavior Analytic Research, offered
at Western Michigan University. The class uses the concepts being
taught in PSY4600 and applies them to a real world setting. The
mission statement of the system is, the production of students who
are well trained in the application of behavior systems analytic
skills and OBM skills to a variety of applied settings through the
practical experience of working at a real organization. This mission
is accomplished by assisting the students through their individual
projects being conducted at local businesses. The system managers
provide feedback, suggestions, and deadlines for each aspect of
the project. The students will pinpoint an area of a business the
manager would like to improve, collect baseline data on the pinpointed
behavior, and implement an intervention. The system manages their
performance through point contingencies which ultimately lead to
their final grade. The contingencies are placed on collecting a
sufficient amount of data each week, attending class, and turning
in assignments. The assignments include, but are not limited to,
analyzing the natural contingencies, diagramming the performance
management contingency, filling out a goal specification form, and
developing a cultural change model. Treatment integrity, interobserver
agreement, and social validity measures are taken on each student's
project to insure and measure the quality of the project.
Academic and Career Counseling. Melissa Ainslie, Tamina Stuber,
Austin Mifsud, Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
purpose of the Behavioral Academic and Career Counseling System
is to provide quality counseling services to Western Michigan University
undergraduate students so that they have the knowledge needed to
achieve their academic and professional goals. In turn, society
will benefit from the services that these students can provide.
Research Supervisory System. Kelli Perry, Jessica Irish, Chelsea
Cronican-Walker, Tiffany Smiecinski, Richard Malott (Western Michigan
Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS) is a system within the
Psychology Department at Western Michigan University. The Behavioral
Research Supervisory System (BRSS) is a subsystem within BATS that
oversees the completion of timely work on fourteen Research and
Development projects through the use of performance management and
point contingencies. Graduate and undergraduate students complete
weekly system tasks, including project tasks, writing assignments
and revisions, and attending weekly system meetings. At these meetings
BRSS managers verify task completion, allocate points and feedback
for each task, and collect data on task and hour completion. At
the end of the semester, points are accumulated to calculate a grade
for each student based on the total number of points available.
Of Operant Behavior In Individual and Schooled Fishes: Some Preliminary
Data. Paul Thomas Andronis, Allison H. Hahn, & Todd Hillhouse
(Northern Michigan University).
are (neuroanatomically) relatively simple vertebrates. Recent advances
in developmental neurobiology have poised zebrafish (Danio rerio)
as the preeminent model organisms for the study of relations between
neurological development and the emergence of adaptive behavior.
This poster reports some preliminary data for comparing aggregate
operant behavior by zebrafish in groups with simple operant behavior
by individual goldfish (Crassus auratus). The study examines the
common assumption that economic models of aggregate behavior and
behavioral models of individual choice are somehow interchangeable.
VI Performances: II. Extinction With and Without Interposed CRF.
Paul Thomas Andronis & Jennifer Budreau (Northern Michigan University)
Introductory psychology textbooks continue to state that when
behavior is maintained under intermittent schedules, it is more
resistant to extinction than if maintained by continuous reinforcement.
This is often accompanied by admonitions that, in applied settings,
intermittently reinforced behavior may be highly resistant to extinction,
may take longer to decelerate than continuously reinforced behavior,
and may actually escalate and be inadvertently reinforced before
extinction has had its targeted effects. Several laboratory investigations
have examined the effects of extinction on intermittently reinforced
behavior brought under control of CRF again before extinction is
applied, but these studies have been inconclusive as to whether
such behavior is less resistant to extinction than behavior simply
maintained under intermittent reinforcement without restoration
of CRF before the final EXT component. The present poster describes
experiments in which pigeons were first trained to peck two white
keys under control of one pair of concurrent intermittent reinforcement
schedules (left key VI-30s: right key VI-60s), alternating with
two red keys under control of the opposite pairing of schedules
(left key VI-60s: right key VI-30s), yielding a MULT Conc (VI-30s:VI-60s)/Conc(VI-60s:VI-30s)
schedule. The white- and red-key conditions, along with their respective
concurrent schedules, alternated at ten minute intervals within
each session. Next, the concurrent schedules on the white keys was
changed to Conc (EXT:EXT), while the VI-60s component of the concurrent
schedules on the red keys was placed on CRF [Conc(CRF:VI-30s)].
Finally, all four VI components, two under each condition, were
placed under extinction. The numbers of responses made under extinction,
rates of keypecking, celeration changes, and numbers of trials to
extinction, were related to the number of response units reinforced
prior to extinction. The investigators discuss some possible implications
of these findings for the effective use of extinction in applied
Vocal Stereotypy of Preschoolers Diagnosed with Autism. Catherine
Parrish, Ian Santus, Ivy M. Chong (Beaumont Hospitals - CARE program)
assessment indicated that the vocal stereotypy of four preschoolers
diagnosed with autism was undifferentiated (i.e., occurring at high
rates consistently across sessions) suggesting that the stereotypy
was multiply controlled and/or maintained by sensory reinforcement.
Experimental functional analyses were conducted for two of the four
students. Following the assessment phase, individualized treatment
packages were implemented for each child, containing one or more
of the following components: (1) Response interruption and redirection
(RIRD), consisting of the tutor providing vocal instructions (i.e.
social questions, tact behavior) contingent on the target behavior;
(2) Differential reinforcement for the non-occurrence of the behavior
(DRO), consisting of providing preferred toys or edibles for the
absence of vocal stereotypy during the predetermined interval; and
(3) Noncontingent matched stimulation (NMS), consisting of providing
preferred toys and/or music. For each child, the treatment package
was successful in significantly reducing levels of vocal stereotypy.
Concept Mastery: A Practitioner Approach to Research and Development.
Woan Tian Chow & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Manipulative Imitation: A Practitioner Model of Research and Development
Breanne K. Crooks & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Preparation Course. Karolina Paszek, Deanna Niemiec, Melissa
Wittman, & Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
the Behavioral Analysis Training System (BATS) at Western Michigan
University there is a subsystem that focused application of Behavior
Analysis in the undergraduate task of successfully taking the GRE
and applying for graduate school. The course that is designed as
a performance- monitoring class for undergraduates is called the
GRE Preparation Course. The Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Preparation
Course is designed to assist undergraduates study for the GRE and
to help undergraduates prepare for materials and application for
graduate school admission. These two objectives are achieved by
using various concepts within the Principles of Behavior Analysis,
with emphasis on developing and maintaining self-management skills.
We monitor undergraduate student performance and supervise students
in their graduate school application process with consistent and
continual deadlines in place with the additional of specific point-
based contingencies. Weekly meetings are conducting, along with
verification and checking of assignment completion to validate an
undergraduate's effort of achieving a desirable GRE score and completion
of graduate school applications in a timely manner. Practice GRE
scores are collected, entered into a database, and are used as a
supplement in assuring the success of continuous performance management.
After all assigned tasks are completed, students accomplish overall
objectives of graduate school application process preparation and
their point contingencies are calculated into a letter grade based
on the total amount of point available at the end of the semester.
Headbanging By Pigeons: Some Preliminary Data From a Systematic
Replication. Paul Thomas Andronis & Jennifer Budreau (Northern
is a disturbing behavior commonly associated with various forms
of developmental disorders. It has been hypothesized as a type of
aberrant self-stimulatory behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement,
as a response that provides distraction from the psychological pain
of intense autistic isolation, or as an outcome of other similar
pathological processes. Alternatively, Layng, Andronis, and Goldiamond
(1997) demonstrated that such behavior in pigeons could be viewed
also as operant behavior, not very different from keypecking, lever-pressing,
treadle-pressing, or other mundane behaviors typically regarded
as "normal." The present study systematically replicates
the initial findings, and extends them to include a different history
of behavioral congtingencies.
Autism Practicum. Katie Relph, Rebecca O'Gorman, Tialha Nover,
Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
classroom at Croyden Avenue School provides an early behavioral
training program for children with autism. This program entails
intensive, one-on-one training, called discrete-trial training.
In this classroom, the trainers who implement discrete-trial training
are practicum students at Western Michigan University. The Intermediate
Autism Practicum is a continuation of the Special Populations Practicum,
designed to further WMU students' skills in working with children
diagnosed with autism. This practicum helps the practicum students
get experience using behavior analysis to teach children diagnosed
mission of the Intermediate Practicum is to produce graduate students
with experience in system management, course presentation, and supervision
of graduate and undergraduate students over discrete-trial techniques
for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. As well as
undergraduate students with additional experience and supervision
over discrete-trial implementation for children diagnosed with autism
spectrum disorders, who are trained and knowledgeable for admission
into the advanced practicum level experience. I will be presenting
a poster providing an overview of the Intermediate Autism Practicum
including the inputs and outputs of this course, the roles and responsibilities
of individuals involved as well as course data. The inputs and outputs
are the variables that the practicum needs to function and also
the results of training in the Intermediate Practicum. The roles
and responsibilities highlight the basic requirements at each level
of management. The internal feedback data include data from students
in the course regarding their own satisfaction with the course content
and skills acquired.
Language Facilitation Training System. Rebecca Markovits, Jennifer
Lonsdorf, Michelle Gagliano, Robbie J. Baldus, Richard W. Malott
(Western Michigan University)
mission of the LFT system is the production and maintenance of an
environment including settings, personnel and materials, which support
the continued facilitation and acquisition of language, including
the use of signs, symbols and verbal behavior, in a preprimary classroom
at the Croyden Avenue School.
Efficiency of Two Strategies for Completing Fluency-Based Modules.
Stephen Eversole (Behavior Development Solutions)
1000 behavior analysts each year use the Conceptual Instruction
Model fluency-based program to prepare for the BACB exam and to
acquire CEUs. This Model requires learners to answer multiple-choice
questions to a criterion of 100% within a brief time. They practice
the modules repeatedly until this criterion is achieved. Users tend
to adopt one of two strategies: (1) answer questions until they
miss one, then start over; or (2) use all of the time allotted to
answer questions, regardless of score. Data will be analyzed to
determine which of the two strategies results in the least instructional
time to criterion.
Efficacy of the Behavior Analysis Training System. Tara E. Adams,
Krista Gabriau (Western Michigan University), Alaina Clark (Quality
Behavioral Outcomes), Caitlin O'Boyle, Richard Malott (Western MIchigan
Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) created ABA START as an
on-line resource where members may search for job opportunities
in their particular areas of interest. Employment opportunities
for individuals with a master's degree in the autism or developmental
disabilities field were tracked for one year by the Behavior Analysis
Training System (BATS). BATS is Dr. Richard Malott's graduate program
at Western Michigan University. Information obtained includes the
most frequently posted job titles, states and countries of job postings,
qualifications, and most sought after experience. After being obtained,
this information was compared and contrasted with the training provided
by the BATS graduate program. Results will be used to modify the
BATS program to ensure the best possible training for its students.
This could aid students in obtaining quality employment in the field
of behavior analysis. Additionally, it serves as a limited source
of knowledge pertaining to the direction of the field of autism
and developmental disabilities, specifically in relation to employment
for people possessing master's degrees.
Psychology Practicum. Stephanie Bates, Allison Barrand, Clarissa
Barnes, Heather Johnston, & Richard Malott (Western Michigan
The Professional Psychology Practicum (PPP) is a subsystem of the
Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS)at Western Michigan University.
The goal of PPP is to provide training, experience, and supervision
to Masters practicum students to prepare them to become Board Certified
Behavior Analysts. Because BATS takes a systems approach to education,
it is important to have continuous quality improvement of the organization
as a whole and of each of the subsystems. For the PPP system, regular
evaluations and surveys are conducted with the Masters students
regarding issues of system practices, personnel performance, and
areas for improvement.
Least to Most vs. Most to Least A Practitioner Model of Research
Kristen Gaisford and Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Behavior - Special Interest Group (ABA affiliated). Season M.
Almason (Western Michigan University), Sarah A. Lechago (Western
Michigan University) & William Potter (California State University-
verbal behavior special interest group is an ABA affiliated organization.
This SIG is dedicated to the study of language from a behavior analytic
perspective. Members of the SIG are devoted to the advancement of
verbal behavior research and treatment approaches. The SIG is in
a critical and exciting period of growth and we are eager to recruit
a variety of interested students and professionals into the SIG
to contribute to its advancement.
Vocal Behavior Sub-system of the Language Facilitation Training
System. Jennifer M. Lonsdorf, Rebecca A. Markovits, Robbie J.
Baldus, Michelle Gagliano, & Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan
Language Facilitation Training System (LFTS) is part of Dr. Richard
Malott's goal-directed Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS),
at Western Michigan University. Furthermore, the Vocal Behavior
(VB) Sub-system of LFTS is a part of the autism training system
affiliated with the Early Childhood Developmental Delay (ECDD) classroom
at Croyden Avenue School. Currently, the research and development
project for the VB Sub-system focuses on training tutors to take
data and increase language in the ECDD classroom.
mission of the Vocal Behavior Sub-system of the Language Facilitation
Training System involves the development of the new vocal behavior
procedures and refinement of old vocal behavior procedures with
the use of a speech pathologist and vocal shaping training, in order
to maintain and support vocal outputs of children in a pre-primary
classroom at a special education school in Southwest Michigan.
the VB Sub-system of LFTS focuses on shaping vocal responses in
these children diagnosed with autism, training tutors to provide
proficient discrete-trial therapy to shape these responses, and
developing a measurement system in conjunction with support from
the school's speech pathologist to help reach each child's goals.
This system will be based on baseline data that are collected specific
to the frequency and type of vocal outputs by each child. Therefore,
this data driven approach will help to develop and revise procedures
involving vocalization, as well as helping children meet their yearly
goals reliably, particular to speech.
Self-Management System. Melody Taylor, Andrea Rau, Megan Baumgartner,
Abby Mercure, & Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
is an undergraduate psychology course and a subsystem within the
Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS), a system within the Psychology
Department at Western Michigan University. The goal of Self-Management
is to help students gain sufficient self-management tools that can
be applied to academic and non-academic tasks and generalized to
their everyday lives. The course is a one credit class that meets
for 1.25 hours once a week. Students earn points contingent on behaviors
listed on their task verification forms (TVFs); these aid in eliminating
procrastination by holding the students accountable with proof of
task completion in their other courses. Students are responsible
for completing a self-management project that focuses on either
increasing or decreasing a behavior. Students share tactics, techniques,
and procedures during class discussion that aid in the success of
their projects. Student activities include completing performance
contracts and TVFs, demonstrating proof of their accomplished tasks
and presenting performance graphs during class.
system manager and undergraduate research assistants enforce strong
point contingencies to control task completion, time-management
and goal-setting behaviors. In addition, they are responsible for
conducting brief class discussions and verifying proof of task completion.
a Visually Impaired Preschooler Diagnosed with Autism to Wear Glasses.
Ian Santus. Ivy Chong (Beaumont Hospitals - CARE program)
American Foundation for the Blind estimates that 10 million people
in the United States are visually impaired. Visual impairment is
a term experts use to describe any kind of vision loss, whether
it's someone who cannot see at all or someone who has partial vision
loss. However, visual problems can often be easily corrected with
eyeglasses or contact lenses. A prompting and differential reinforcement
procedure was used to teach a preschooler diagnosed with autism
to increase the duration in which he would wear his glasses. Initially,
presentation of the glasses evoked a high rate of negative vocalizations
and self-injurious behavior. During the training condition, prompting,
response blocking and differential reinforcement were used to gradually
increase the duration of glasses on from 0-s to 3-hours. Additional
generalization trials showed that the duration of glasses on increased
in the presence of novel stimuli, in novel settings (public school
setting, home), and with novel instructors.
Thursday 10:30am - 5:00 pm Ballroom A
The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement
Program: The VB-MAPP
Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D., BCBA 6.0
BACB Type 2 CEUs
Description: This workshop will teach the participant
how to administer the VB-MAPP, and how to use the results to develop
a language and social skills intervention program for a child
with autism. The VB-MAPP is an assessment tool that is based on
Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior, applied behavior
analysis, typical developmental milestones, and field-test data
from typically developing children, as well as children with autism.
There are four components of the VB-MAPP. The first component
is the VB-MAPP Skills Assessment. This part is designed to provide
a representative sample of a child’s existing verbal and
related skills (e.g., mand, tact, intraverbal, play and social
skills). The assessment contains 165 milestones balanced across
3 developmental levels (0-18 months, 18-30 months, and 30-48 months)
and 16 different skill areas. The second component of the assessment
is the VB-MAPP Skills Task Analysis, which provides a further
breakdown for 9 of the skills in order to provide a more detailed
identification and tracking of the target skills. The third part
is the VB-MAPP Barriers Assessment, which provides an assessment
of 22 common language and learning barriers faced by children
with autism. The final component is the VB-MAPP Placement System,
which provides an interpretation of each milestone and suggestions
for specific IEP goals and intervention strategies.
able to describe the basic elements of a behavioral analysis
able to describe how a behavioral analysis of language can benefit
children with autism
able to use the four components of the VB-MAPP to assess an
individual child’s learning, language, and social skills
able to use the VB-MAPP to identify appropriate IEP goals for
children with language and social delays
able to use the Placement Guide to set up an appropriate intervention
program for an individual child that incorporates social, language
and learning goals
be able to implement an individualized language intervention
strategies based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior
L. Sundberg, Ph.D., BCBA received his doctorate degree in Applied
Behavior Analysis from Western Michigan University (1980), under
the direction of Dr. Jack Michael. Dr. Sundberg is the co-author
of the books The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills:
The ABLLS, Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other
Developmental Disabilities, and A Collection of Reprints on Verbal
Behavior. He has published over 45 professional papers, including
a recent book chapter titled “Verbal Behavior” in
the new edition of Applied Behavior Analysis by Cooper, Heron,
& Heward (2007). He is the founder and past editor of the
journal The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, a twice past-president
of The Northern California Association for Behavior Analysis,
a past-chair of the Publication Board of ABA:International, and
was a member the BACB committee that developed the BCBA and BCABA
Task Lists. Dr. Sundberg has given over 450 national and international
conference presentations and workshops, and taught 80 college
courses on behavior analysis, verbal behavior, sign language,
and child development. He is a licensed psychologist in private
practice who consults to programs and classrooms that serve children
with autism in the San Francisco Bay Area. Dr. Sundberg has received
a number of awards, including the 2001 “Distinguished Psychology
Department Alumnus Award” from Western Michigan University.
- 4:00 pm Room 300
Using the Language Matrix in Intensive Early Intervention
with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Developing Natural
Social Language in Challenging Cases. Eric V. Larsson,
PhD, BCBA (Lovaas Institute Midwest) 3.0
BACB Type 2 CEUs
Description: In intensive
early intervention with young children with autism, a great number
of language skills are often taught. This workshop will show how
such skills can be developed in a coherent conceptual framework,
enabling productive treatment planning, trouble-shooting, and
four-dimensional matrix of social language skills will be used to
design an overall generative process of language development. The
matrix of skills is addressed across generalization modalities,
syntax forms, conditional discriminations, and functional communicative
relationships. After receptive and expressive skills are developed,
the matrix naturally flows into auditory comprehension and creative
language production skills. The organization of the language curriculum
can be used to control the pacing of related social skills in a
systematic manner. Complex social contingencies will be addressed
to ensure that the child is not only acquiring social skills, but
is using those skills functionally throughout the child's 24-hour
and 7-day life. Data obtained from children in intensive early
intervention will be presented to demonstrate how the generative
curriculum can improve the progress of children with severely challenging
At the end of the workshop,
participants will be able to:
Describe information necessary to plan and program children's
language curriculums into a coherent whole.
Describe how to develop generative language skills rather
than rote language skills.
Describe conditions that promote the production and comprehension
of generative language learning.
Describe programming across generalization modalities, syntax
forms, conditional discriminations, and functional communication
Describe programs that promote creative language production
and auditory comprehension through generative language learning.
- Describe programming for genuinely functional social